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                        Stones, A Short Catalog 
                             Tandika Star
BLOODSTONE

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Bloodstone is a member of the Chalcedony
family.It is a variety of quartz (silicon dioxide) often with some iron
and aluminum. The chemistry is SiO2. It is dark, bright green spotted
with red inclusions. The streak is white. This is considered a microcry-
stalline variety of quartz and is not found in crystal form.

ENVIRONMENT: Chalcedony is formed in several environments, generally
near the surface of the earth where temperatures and pressures are
relatively low. It commonly forms in the zone of alteration of lode and
massive hydrothermal replacement deposits and as bodies of chert in
chemical sedimentary rocks.

OCCURENCE: India, Germany.

NAME: This stone is also referred to as "heliotrope," which is derived
from two Greek words which signify "sun-turning". It was given this name
because of a notion that when immersed in water it would turn the sun
red. Chalcedony is derived from Chalcedon, an ancient Greek city of Asia
Minor.

LEGEND and LORE: This is one of the birthstones for March.

    "Who in this world of ours, her eyes
    In March first opens, shall be wise.
    In days of peril, firm and brave,
    And wear a Bloodstone to her grave." (5)

Ancient warriors often carried an amulet of bloodstone which was
intended to stop bleeding when applied to a wound.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Because it is green, it can be used for "money
spells". It is also considered a "lucky" stone for atheletes because it
imparts courage and stamina.

HEALING: Heliotrope is used today in conjunction with anything having to
do with blood.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE:I consider the ancient uses of bloodstone in line
with what I use it for today. In addition, I consider it a "cholesterol
buster", and wouldn't hesitate to apply it to any with this type of
problem. Generally I would use it at the Heart Chakra. I've also used it
successfully in situations where I needed "courage" to accomplish
something. I will just carry a piece of it in my pocket for this
purpose.

NOTE: Chrysoprase, carnelian, jasper and agate are all forms of
Chalcedony.

-------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurance and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2605

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

4. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

5. Birthstone poem from "The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious
Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.

 an interesting experiment (BLOODSTONE cont.)
.......................................................................-
This is more about bloodstone, but I didn't want to include it in the
main text.  Read on, and you'll see why...

A few years ago, I had a discussion with my daughter (who was about 13
at the time) about the "spiritual essence" of plants and stones. I
explained to her that different people "see" this spiritual essence in
various forms. Somehow, this led to a discussion of "devas", which she
interpreted as "people, but without a body that we can see with mundane
eyes."

A few days later, I was reading a novel, reposed on the sofa in my
livingroom.  She was sitting on the floor by the coffee table, drawing
in her sketchbook with her pastels.

On the coffee table were several stones in a dish. One was an amethyst,
one a bloodstone, one was some yellow/green crystal that someone had
loaned to me because they wanted my "impressions" ...and there were some
others that I don't remember now.

I glanced over at my daughter, and she was holding one of the stones in
her hands, with her eyes closed. She apparently had achieved some form
of "altered state" because her little eyeballs were just wigglin' away
(REM).

A while later, I glanced over, and she was drawing a portrait. After she
seemed finished and satisfied with what she was doing, I questioned her
about it. She said she was drawing the "spirit/deva" of the stones in
the dish.

The one for bloodstone was an elf-like, male person. He had dark/black
hair, green, slanted eyes, "Spock" eyebrows, and pointed ears. Because
of the expression on his face, I asked her what she thought of him. Her
comments were:
"He is very fierce. I'm kind of afraid of him, because it seems like he
is pretty strong and could get mad. He uses weapons...and can fight."

My daughter didn't know anything about the "lore" connected with the
stones. In addition, I found that "bloodstone" was very different from
any of the other "stone portraits" that she did...The rest were much
more "human"...

................................................................................
2606

BROWN (PICTURE) JASPER

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Brown Jasper, sometimes called "picture" Jasper
because of the beautiful variations in coloring, is a type of Chal-
cedony. It is closely related to Quartz, with the chemistry of SiO2. The
color variations are from trace amounts of other minerals, usually iron
and aluminum. The hardness is 7.

ENVIRONMENT: Chalcedony is formed in several environments, generally
near the surface of the earth where temperatures and pressures are
relatively low. It commonly forms in the zone of alteration of lode and
massive hydrothermal replacement deposits and as bodies of chert in
chemical sedimentary rocks.

OCCURENCE: Montana, Utah and Wyoming are prolific locations for Brown
Jasper in the U.S. In addition, fine specimens have come from Brazil,
Uruguay and Egypt.  Other colors and forms of Jasper are abundant in
California, Texas and Arkansas.

NAME: The name Chalcedony is from Chalcedon, an ancient Greek city of
Asia Minor.

LEGEND and LORE: Beautiful Jasper, with light and dark brown markings
was referred to as "Egyptian Marble". Various Native American tribes
used Jasper as a rubbing stone and some called it "the rain bringer".

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Brown Jasper is balancing and grounding. This stone,
carved into an arrowhead, is worn to attract luck. It is a good stone to
use after completing a ritual to help you regain your center and become
grounded.

HEALING: Jasper is stabilizing. It will help to reduce insecurity, fear
and guilt.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: I use a piece of Montana Picture Jasper, which is
mostly brown and tan with a slight bit of sky or navy blue as a strong
grounding stone for those who have an excess of energy at the Splenic
Chakra.I've also used the stone as a basis for a "journey"...The stone
looks like a scene of the Rocky Mountains. Finally, I've used Picture
Jasper as a psychological tool:I will ask someone who is "looking for an
answer" to gaze into the stone and describe all the symbols they see.
Then I work with the client to form the "symbols" into some sort of
answer.

NOTES: Agate, Jasper, Flint, Sardonyx, and onyx are all forms of
Chalcedony. In addition, particular colors of Chalcedony have specific
names, such as Heliotrope, Bloodstone, Chrysophrase and Moss Agate.

                      -------bibliography-------
1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.
................................................................................
2607

CARNELIAN

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION:Carnelian is the clear red to brownish red member
of the Chalcedony family. It is a microcrystalline variety of Quartz(Si-
licone Dioxide) and may contain small amounts of iron oxides. The
hardness is 7, and the streak is white.

ENVIRONMENT: Chalcedony is formed in several environments, generally
near the surface of the earth where temperatures and pressures are
relatively low. It commonly forms in the zone of alteration of lode and
massive hydrothermal replacement deposits and as bodies of chert in
chemical sedimentary rocks.

OCCURENCE: Fine carnelian comes from India and South America.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION:Carnelian is used as an alternate birthstone for
the month of May.It is normally cut into cabochons, engraved, or made
into seal stones or rounded, polished, and pierced for necklaces and
other items of jewelry.

NAME: The name means "flesh-colored", from [caro], meaning "genitive"
and [carnis], meaning "flesh".

LEGEND and LORE: Carnelian has long been associated with courage and
cleansing of the blood. It was beleived that the stone would improve
one's outlook, making the individual cheerful and expelling fears.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Katrina Raphaell says that Carnelian can be used to
"see into the past". The "Crystal Oracle" says that Carnelian referrs to
the Self, and Current Conditions. It is a grounding stone, and associ-
ated with the Earth.  As such, it is considered practical, sensible and
balanced. Cunningham associates the stone with the element of Fire. He
suggests it as a talisman against Telepathic invasion.

HEALING: It is recommended for infertility or impotency. In addition it
is used for purification of the blood. It has also been suggested that
this stone will stop nosebleeding.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: I call this the "sexy" stone...since I beleive it
stimulates sexual appetites. I use it in the lower Chakras for infer-
tility and impotency for men(I use Coral as the feminine counterpart.)
I always get a good chuckle when I notice a man wearing a LARGE
Cornelian belt buckle. In addition, I would use this stone for relief of
pain from arthritis in men.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.

3. Other Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.


2608

4. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's 
Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

5. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

6. Some of the healing information may come from "A Journey Through the
Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

  ...................................................................
CORAL

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: CaCo3, or calcium carbonate in the form of
calcite, is the main constituent of calcareous corals; minor con-
stituents are MgCo3, or magnesium carbonate and proteinaceous organic
substances, which act as binding agents. At 2.5 to 4, the hardness is
slightly higher than that of calcite. The skeletons of corals vary in
color: from bright to dark red, slightly orange-red, pink and white.

ENVIRONMENT: In all cases, coral consists of the branching skeletons of
animals which live in colonies planted on the seabed at depths varying
from tens to hundreds of meters. They are typical of warmish to very
warm seas.

OCCURENCE: The most famous of these organisms is Corallium rubrum, which
lives in the waters of the Mediterranean and, despite its name,provides
not only red, but orange, pink, and white coral. Similar to this are
Corallium elatius, C. japonicum, and C. secundum, which maily live off
the coasts of Japan, China, Indochina, the Philippines, and other
archipelagos of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Coral colonies occupy
large areas especially in the Pacific, but also near the coast of South
Africa, in the Red Sea, and to the east of Australia.  These latter
colonies, however, consist of madrepore, which has little in common with
the corals used as ornaments.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: Most of the coral used since antiquity as an
ornamental material comes from the calcareous skeletons of colonies of
marine organisms of the phylum Cnidaria, order Corgonacea, genus
Corallium. Corals take a good polish. They also have a certain degree of
elasticity and can be heated and bent into bangles. Thin brancehes were
and still are polished, pierced, and threaded, unaltered, into neck-
laces. Larger pieces are cut into spherical or faceted necklace beads,
pear shapes for pendant jewelry, or cabochons. It is also used for
carved pieces and small figurines, in both oriental and western
art styles. The most highly prized varities of coral are those that are
a uniform, strong bright red.

NAME: The name is derived from the Latin [corallium,] related to the
Greek [korallion].

LEGEND and LORE: The oldest known findings of red coral date from the
Mesopotamian civilization, i.e. from about 3000 BC. For centuries, this
was the coral par excellence, and at the time of Pliny the Elder it was
apparently much appreciated in India, even more than in Europe.Red coral
has traditionally been used as a protection from the "evil eye" and as
a cure for sterility.  One of the Greek names for Coral was Gorgeia,
from the tradition that blood dripped from the Head of Medea, which
Perseus had deposited on some branches near the sea-shore; which blood,
2609

becoming hard, was taken by the Sea Nymps, and planted in the sea. (8)

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Coral is associated with Venus, Isis and Water. It
has been used as a form of protective magic for children for hundreds of
years.  Cunningham recommends it as a luck-attractor for living
areas.Sailors use it as a protection from bad weather while at sea.
Red-orange coral is one of the four element gemstones of the Pueblo
Indians. It is one of the four colors used for the directions in the
Hopi/Zuni Road of Life. Coral is considered a representative of the warm
energy of the Sun, and the southern direction.

HEALING: Coral's healing properties are mostly associated with Women,
young children and the elderly. For women it is said to increase
fertility and regulate menstration. For young children, it is recom-
mended to ease teething and to prevent epilepsy. For the elderly, it is
used as a cure for arthritis.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: I use coral at the lower Chakras for "Women's
Healing." In  particular, I will use it for disorders relating to female
reproductive organs.  I also use it magically, to represent female
fertility.I have used it with some success for arthritis, but only for
women. This is one of the stones that I "reserve" for female/feminine
use. (I use Carnelian as the "male" counterpart.)  I have not had an
opportunity to try it for a young child.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "Simon & Schuster's Guide to Gems and Precious Stones".

2. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.

3. Other Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.

4. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

5. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

6. Some of the healing information may come from "A Journey Through the
Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

7. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

8. Some occult lore is from "The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious
Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.

................................................................................
2610

EMERALD

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION:Emerald is a type of Beryl, Beryllium aluminum
silicate, frequently with some sodium, lithium and cesium.It's chemistry
is Be3Al2Si6O18. Beryls range in color from Bright green (emerald),
blue, greenish blue (aquamarine), yellow (golden beryl), red, pink
(morganite) to white. The streak is colorless. It's hardness is 7-1/2 to
8. The crystals are Hexagonal and they are common. Fine emeralds have
velvety body appearance; their value lies in their even distribution of
color. Inclusions are common in emerald, but other stones of this group
are usually most valuable when free of flaws.

ENVIRONMENT: Beryl develops in pegmatites and certain metamorphic rocks.
It occurs with quartz, microcline, and muscovite in pegmatites, and with
quartz, muscovite, and almandine in schist of regional metamorphic
rocks.

OCCURENCE: Best emerald comes from Colombia.(NOTE: it is not necessary
to spend thousands of dollars for a tiny chip of emerald to add to your
healing/ magical collection. If you look around in rock shops, you may
be able to come across some "less than perfect" stones that aren't
faceted. I've found 4 of them, slightly larger than my fingernail and
they were about $3.00 each.)

NAME: The name is from the Greek [beryllos] indicating any green
gemstone.

LEGEND and LORE: Emerald is considered a birthstone for the month of
May.

    "Who first beholds the light of day,
    In spring's sweet flowery month of May,
    And wears an Emerald all her life,
    Shall be a loved, and happy wife." (5)

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: "If you wish to bring a love into your life, buy an
emerald and charge it with your magical need through your visualization,
perhaps while placing it near a green candle. After this ritual, wear or
carry the emerald somewhere near your heart. Do this in such a way that
it cannot be seen by others. When you meet a future love, you'll know it
wasn't the visible jewel that attracted him or her." (3) The Greeks
associated this stone with the Goddess Venus. It has come to represent,
for many people, the security of love.  Emerald, like allmost all of the
green stones, is also advantageous for business/money ventures.

HEALING: Emerald is said to aid perception and inner clarity. Because of
this, they are also associated with healing diseases of the eye, and
problems affecting eyesight. It was believed that emeralds could
counteract poisons and cure disentary.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE:I sometimes use Emeralds in a stone layout. I will
use them for their psychological/spiritual values of clarity and
perception. If I am using them for this purpose, I use them in the area
of the Heart Chakra, in conjunction with Rose Quartz, or Rhodochrosite
for balanced energy. I've also used them for prosperity consciousness.
................................................................................
2611

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurance and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner. Other sources may be "Stone
Power" by Dorothee L. Mella.

4. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

5. Birthstone poem from "The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious
Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.


---
GARNET (PYROPE)

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Pyrope Garnets are from a group of very closely
related aluminum silicates. The Chemistry for the Pyrope variety is
Mg3Al2Si3O12. These Garnets range in color from deep red to reddish
black and on rare occasions from purple and rose to pale purplish red
(sometimes called [rhodolite].) The hardness ranges between 6-1/2 and
7-1/2.

ENVIRONMENT: Pyrope occurs with olivine and hypersthene in peridotite of
plutonic rocks.

OCCURENCE: Pyrope Garnets occur in peridotite in Kentucky, Arkansas,
Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. In the latter half of the nineteenth
century, most Pyrope came from Bohemia, where it is still found today.
The main sources nowadays, however, are South Africa, Zimbabwe,
Tanzania, the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: The garnet species with red or purple varieties,
including Pyrope are considered gemstones. Usually bright red, Pyrope
can be a much less attractive brick or dark red. It can be perfectly
transparent, but this feature is less visible in dark specimens. It is
either made into fairly convex cabochons, or faceted, with an oval or
round mixed cut or, more rarely, a step cut. The faceted gems have good
luster, rather less obvious in cabochons. The most valuable types are,
of course, the transparent ones with the brightest red color. Pyrope is
relatively common, although less so than almandine. Very large stones,
up to several hundred carats have been found; but these are rare and are
found in museums and famous collections.

NAME: The name comes from the Greek [pyropos,] meaning "fiery." The name
"Garnet" comes from the Latin [granatus,] meaning "seed-like".

LEGEND and LORE: Pyrope Garnet has long been associated with love,
passion, sensuality and sexuality. Some Asiatic tribes used red garnets
as bullets for sling bows because they pierced their victims quickly,
and could not be seen well in the body when they mingled with the blood.
2612

Throughout the ages, Pyrope has been used as a curative for all types of
ailments dealing with blood.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Pyrope is directly linked with the Will. As such, it
is a strong stone for the Magician and Shaman. It is associated with
Fire and Mars, Strength and Protection. It will help the practitioner
tap into extra energy for ritualistic purposes.

HEALING: While all Garnets are associated with the Root Chakra, Pyrope
is particularly symbolic. It is used for healing when the subject
involved has "lost the will to live", since it is directly related to
the desire to live and achieve in this lifetime. This stone warms and
aids blood circulation, rouses sexuality and heals the reproductive
system and the heart.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: If you are already a strong willed individual or
have a fiery temper that you need to learn to control, I suggest that
you work with the Alamandine Garnets, rather than the Pyropes. This is
a good stone to use for treating depression. Very often, when I've
"worked" on an individual who has suffered a heart attack, I find that
the individual is rather severely depressed (which I think is a side
effect of the medication) and has lost the will to continue in this
lifetime. I've found that fiery red Pyrope Garnets are a great help in
this situation.

ADDITIONAL NOTES: The Latin name [carbunculus,] (small coal or ember),
is attributed to all red transparent stones. It is more often applied to
Pyropes when they are formed into cabochons than any other stone.

-------bibliography-------
1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audubon Society field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".
2. Other scientific information may be from "Simon & Schuester's Guide
to Gems and Precious Stones".
3. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.
4. Other precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.
5. Basic Legends, Lore and Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's
Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.
6. Other Magical and Healing information may come from "ccrystal Wisdom,
Spiritual Properties of Crystals and Gemstones" by Dolfyn.
7. More legends and lore may come from "Stone Power" by Dorothee L.
Mella.
8. Healing information is from "The Women's Book of Healing", by Diane
Stein.
9. Additional healing information may be from "The Occult and Curative
Powers of Precious Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.
---------------------------------------------------------------
GARNET (ALMANDINE)

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION:  Almandine Garnets are from a group of very
closely related aluminum silicates. The Chemistry for the Almandine
variety is Fe2/3+Al2Si3O12. These Garnets range in color from deep red
to brown and brownish black. The hardness ranges between 6-1/2 and
7-1/2.

2613

ENVIRONMENT: Almandine occurs in diorite of plutonic rocks, and with
andalusite, hornblende, and biotite in hornfels and schist of contact
and regional metamorphic rocks.

OCCURENCE: Well-formed crystals of Almandine have come from Wrangell, SE
Alaska; from Emerald Creek, Benewah Co., Idaho; and from Michigamme,
Michigan.  Gemstone quality material is obtained in large quantities
from Sri Lanka and India, where it is also cut; other sources are Burma,
Brazil, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Australia.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: Most red garnets come under the name Almandine,
even when their composition is midway between that of Pyrope and
Almandine and similar, in many cases, to that of Rhodolite. The reason
for this is the similarity in their color and absorption spectrum
characteristics. Almandine has a brilliant luster, but its transparency
is frequently marred, even in very clear stones, by excessive depth of
color. The cabochon cut is widely used, often being given a strongly
convex shape and sometimes a concave base, in an effort to lighten
the color by reducing the thickness. Rose cuts have also been used,
particularly in the past. Nowdays, when the material is quite transpare-
nt, faceted cuts are used as well, and sometimes square or rectangular
step cuts.  Gems of several carats are not uncommon. Faceted or even
barely rounded pieces of Almandine, pierced as necklace beads, were very
common in the recent past, but are now considered old-fashioned.

NAME: The name Almandine comes from [carbunculus alabandicus,] after the
city of Alabanda in Asia Minor, where gems were traded at the time of
Pliny theElder.

LEGEND and LORE: All red Garnet has long been associated with love,
passion, sensuality and sexuality. Garnet is considered a birthstone for
those born in January:

"By her in January born
No gem save Garnets should be worn;
They will ensure her constancy,
True friendship, and fidelity."

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: The darker Garnets are associated with the Will and
the Source of Life Incarnate. This is who and what we are in this
lifetime. This stone is worn for protective purposes, and is thought to
drive off demons and phantoms.

HEALING: Almandine Garnets are used to heal skin conditions associated
with poor circulation. They improve vigor, strength and endurance.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: Almandine Garnets are particularly effective when
healing "traumas" that are carried over from a past life and deal with
sexuality and heart/love problems.

                      -------bibliography-------
1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audubon Society field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".
2. Other scientific information may be from "Simon & Schuester's Guide
to Gems and Precious Stones".
3. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.
2614

4. Other precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.
5. Basic Legends, Lore and Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's
Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.
6. Other Magical and Healing information may come from "ccrystal Wisdom,
Spiritual Properties of Crystals and Gemstones" by Dolfyn.
7. More legends and lore may come from "Stone Power" by Dorothee L.
Mella.
8. Healing information is from "The Women's Book of Healing", by Diane
Stein.
9. Additional healing information may be from "The Occult and Curative
Powers of Precious Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.
10. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

GARNET (SPESSARTINE)

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION:  Spessartine Garnets are from a group of very
closely related aluminum silicates. The Chemistry for the Spessartine
variety is Mn3Al2Si3O12. These Garnets range in color from brownish red
to hyacinth-red.  The hardness ranges between 6-1/2 and 7-1/2.

ENVIRONMENT: Spessartine occurs with albite and muscovite in granite
pegmatites and with quartz and riebeckite in blue schist or regional
metamorphic rocks..

OCCURENCE: Large corroded crystals of Spessartine have come from the
Rutherford No. 2 Mine, Amelia, Amelia Co., Virginia; crystals up to 1"
in diameter have been found in several pegmatites in the Ramona
District, San Diego Co., California; sharp, dark-red, well-formed
crystals occur in cavities in rhyolite near Ely, White Pine C., Nevada;
and brilliant crystals of Spessartine have been found with topaz at Ruby
Mt., near Nathrop, Chaffee Co., Colorado. Gem material comes from the
gem gravels of Sri Lanka and Burma. It is also found in Brazil and
Madagascar.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: The gem variety of Spessartine Garnet is uncommon.
It tends to be midway between spessartine and almandine in composition.
The "aurora red", orange-red or orange-pink color is typical. It has
good transparency and considerable luster. It is normally given a mixed,
round, or oval cut. The weight does not normally exceed a few carats.
Gems of about 10 carats are extremely rare and usually of an atypical,
rather dark, unattactive color.

NAME: Spessartine is named after an occurrence in the spessart district,
Bavaria, Germany.

LEGEND and LORE: In the 13th century garnets were thought to repel
insect stings. A magical treatise, "The Book of Wings", dating from the
thirteenth century says "The well-formed image of a lion, if engraved on
a garnet, will protect and preserve honors and health, cures the wearer
of all diseases, brings him honors, and guards him from all perils in
traveling."

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Spessartine is normally considered to be red-orange
to orange-pink. Thus it links the "will" with the "desire". It is a good
stone to use when casting a spell for your "heart's desire", especially
if it is of the orange-pink" variety.
2615

HEALING: The orange garnets are linked to the root and the belly chakra.
They are beneficial in instances of infertility, dealing with reproduc-
tive organs. Mentally, it inspires confidence in personal creativity and
self-worth.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: Spessartine is not as effective as Carnelian for
instances of infertility. But it DOES help the mental attitude of the
individual experiencing the difficulty. It is a warming stone, and works
well for increasing circulation in the lower part of the body.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audubon Society field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Other scientific information may be from "Simon & Schuester's Guide
to Gems and Precious Stones".

3. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.

4. Other precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.

5. Basic Legends, Lore and Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's
Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

6. Other Magical and Healing information may come from "ccrystal Wisdom,
Spiritual Properties of Crystals and Gemstones" by Dolfyn.

7. More legends and lore may come from "Stone Power" by Dorothee L.
Mella.

8. Healing information is from "The Women's Book of Healing", by Diane
Stein.

9. Additional healing information may be from "The Occult and Curative
Powers of Precious Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.

10. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

---
GARNET (GROSSULAR)

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION:  Grossular Garnets are from a group of very
closely related calcium silicates. The Chemistry for the Grossular
variety is Ca3Al2Si3O12. These Garnets range in color from yellow, pink
and brown through white and colorless. The hardness ranges between 6-1/2
and 7-1/2.

ENVIRONMENT: Grossular occurs with wollastonite, calcite, and vesuviani-
te in hornfels of contact metamorphic rocks.

OCCURENCE: Being the commonest of all garnets, it is found in a variety
of locations. Fine colorless crystals up to 1/2" across occur in
Gatineau and Magantic Cos., Quebec, fine lusterous pale brown crystals
2616

up to 3" across were found near Minot, Androscoggin Co., Main, and
beautiful white and pick crystals up to 4" across have been found near
Xalostoc, Morelos, Mexico.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: Grossular also has the typical crystal form of
garnets, occuring in isolated crystals which are often complete, in the
shape of a rhombic dodecahedron, sometimes combined with a trapezo-
hedron. They vary from transparent to semiopaque. The typical color is
light (gooseberry) yellowish green; but they can be a strong to bluish
green, honey yellow or pinkish yellow, or even colorless. When transpar-
ent, the crystals have good luster.  Like other garnets, they have no
cleavage. The greenish to yellowish varieties are used as gems. 
Grossular is not a rare mineral. The types used as gems mainly come from
the gem gravels of Sri Lanka (honey yellow variety); the the United
States, Canada, Mexico, Madagascar, Kenya. The green variety of
grossular garnet, discovered a few decades ago and found mainly in
Kenya, near the Tsavo National Park, is also known as Tsavorite (or
Tsavolite) It is a light, verdant, or dark green, similar to the color
of the better green tourmalines and sometimes, it is said, even
comparable to African emerald. It has good luster. These gems, which are
usually given a round or pear-shaped mixed cut, or occasionally a
brilliant cut, are generally small, rarely exceeding one carat and never
more than a few carats.

NAME: Grossular is from the New Latin [grosssularia,] "gooseberry,"
because some Grossular crystals are pale green like the fruit.

LEGEND and LORE: I do not find anything referring specifically to yellow
or green garnets in my sources.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: While deep red garnets focus on "Will" and orange--
red garnets focus on "Desire", yellow garnets are focused on Personal
Power and Personality. In addition they are (because of their color)
associated with athletic prowess and Oriental philosophies.

HEALING: Being linked to the Solar Plexus Chakra, yellow garnets are
energizing. They can be used for the digestive organs, the diaphram (and
the breath) and eyesight. Green garnets center their healing on the
Heart Chakra.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: It is difficult to find a green stone that works
well for the lower chakras and the lower half of the body. When I do
total layouts for individuals with Aids, I use all green stones,
whenever possible. The Green garnets work well for this. Since Garnet is
the stone of the Root Chakra, the Will, and green is the color of the
Heart Chakra, love, circulation, general healing, this stone works
exceptionally well. I find that the yellow garnets work better for
magical purposes than healing. For healing, there are several
yellow stones that seem to work better for me.

NOTES: Garnets are used in industry as an abrasive.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audubon Society field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2617

2. Other scientific information may be from "Simon & Schuester's Guide
to Gems and Precious Stones".

3. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.

4. Other precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.

5. Basic Legends, Lore and Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's
Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

6. Other Magical and Healing information may come from "ccrystal Wisdom,
Spiritual Properties of Crystals and Gemstones" by Dolfyn.

7. More legends and lore may come from "Stone Power" by Dorothee L.
Mella.

8. Healing information is from "The Women's Book of Healing", by Diane
Stein.

9. Additional healing information may be from "The Occult and Curative
Powers
of Precious Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.

10. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks,
by <grin> Tandika Star.

         -----------------------------------------------------
LAZURITE (LAPIS LAZULI)

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Lazurite is a silicate of sodium calcium and
aluminum, with some sulfur. It is a member of the sodalite group. It's
chemistry is (Na, Ca)8(Al,Si)12O24(S,SO)4. The color ranges in shades of
blue from violet blue and azure blue thru greenish-blue. Lazurite is
distinguished from sodalite by its deeper color and fine grain. It is
also softer and lighter in weight than lazulite. It is dull to greasy
and the streak is pale blue. The hardness ranges between 5 and 5-1/2.

ENVIRONMENT: Crystals are rare. It is usually granular, compact,
massive. It forms in association with pyrite, calcite, and diopside in
hornfels of contact metamorphic rocks. The opaque, vivid blue, light
blue, greenish-blue, or violet-blue stone, consisting largely of
lazurite but with appreciable amounts of calcite, diopside, and pyrite,
is a rock called [lapis lazuli.] The stone is usually veined or spotted.
Its value depends largely upon excellence and uniformity of color and
absence of pyrite, although some purchasers prefer lapis with pyrite.

OCCURRENCE: Lazurite is a rare mineral in North America, but it does
occur on Italian Mt. in the Sawatch Mts. of Colorado; on Ontario Peak in
the San Gabriel Mts., Los Angeles Co., and in Cascade Canyon in the San
Bernardino Mts., San Bernardino Co., California. The finest lapis lazuli
has come from Badakshan in Afghanistan, and less valuable material has
come from Russia and Chile.

NAME:  The name is from the Arabic [lazaward], "heaven," which was also
applied to sky-blue lapis lazuli.
2618

LEGEND and LORE: Lapis Lazuli was a favorite stone of the ancient
Egyptians. In the past Lazurite has been burned and ground to form the
pigment "ultramarine." It was consider an aid to childbirth, and has
long been associated with altered states of consciousness and trance
work. Lapis is sometimes designated as a birthstone for December,
although turquoise is most common.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: To quote Cunningham: "This stone is used in rituals
designed to attract spiritual love. Take an untumbled piece of lapis
with a sharp edge.  Empower the stone and a pink candle with your need
for love. Then, using the lapis lazuli, carve a heart onto the candle.
Place the stone near the candleholder and burn the candle while
visualizing a love coming into your life." Actually, the most important
magical aspect of lapis is it's ability to strengthen psychic awareness.
Cunningham says "Despite its somewhat high price, lapis lazuli is one
stone every stone magician should own and utilize."(2)

HEALING: This stone is used at the Ajina, the Brow Chakra. It's related
gland is the pituitary. The pituitary gland is also referred to as the
"master gland" because it regulates all of the others. This location is
also the center for the eyes, ears, nose and brain.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: I don't often use Lapis for physical healing,
unless I feel that there is a "link" between what is manifested as
disease, and some conflict of the "higher self". I have used it for
brain disorders (tumors, inflammation, etc.) More often, I use it in
layouts where the client is trying to achieve an altered state of
consciousness.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurrence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

4. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

          --------------------------------------------------

LEPIDOLITE

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Lepidolite a potassium, lithium, aluminum
fluorsilicate mica. Its chemistry is complex: K(Li,Al)3(Si,Al)4O10-
(F,OH)2. It is pink, lilac, yellowish, grayish white or a combination of
all of these. The streak is colorless. It is one of the softer stones,
with a hardness of 2-1/2 to 3.

ENVIRONMENT: Lepidolite is confined to granite pegmatites, where it
occurs either as fine-granular masses near the core of the pegmatite or
as stubby or tabular crystals in cavities. It is commonly associated
with microcline, quartz, and tourmaline.
2619

OCCURENCE: Large fine masses of lepidolite have been mined at the
Stewart Pegmatite at Pala, and superb sharp crystals have been obtained
from the Little Three Pegmatite near Ramona, both in San Diego Co.,
California. It has also been mined in substantial amounts in several New
England states and in the Black Hills of South Dakota.

NAME: The name comes from the Greek [lepidos], meaning 'scale', in
allusion to the scaly aggregates in which the mineral commonly occurs.

................................................................................
2620

LEGEND and LORE: Lepidolite is a stone that could certainly be con-
sidered "new age" in the sense that it is just now coming into recogni-
tion by healers and magicians. There is no "past lore" on this stone, to
the best of my knowledge.  Part of this may be due to the fact, that it
is native to the United States.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: "This stone soothes anger, hatred or any other
negative emotion. To quiet the entire house, place lepidolite stones in
a circle around a pink candle." (2)

HEALING: Lepidolite is also know as the "Dream Stone". It will protect
the individual from nightmares, especially those caused by stress or an
upset in personal relationships. It can be used in the same types of
circumstances as Kunzite, namely for manic depression or schizophrenia.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: This is one of the most soothing and relaxing
stones I've ever held. It is a beauty to look at, and calms the mind
enabling it to concentrate on the TRUE source of a problem...instead of
running around in frantic circles accomplishing nothing. The more
rubellite in the stone, the better it will help the heart and mind work
together.

NOTES: Lepidolite has been used as a source of lithium. The above
description of the appearance of this stone may be deceiving, as I found
Cunningham's to be, also. All of the specimens of this stone that I have
seen so far have been grey to a pale lavendar grey with "sparkles" of
the lithium mica embedded in it. The heart-shaped cabuchon that I have
also has very distinctive crystals of rubellite (pink tourmaline) and
veins of white running through it. I was originally looking for a MUCH
brighter lavendar stone. It is unusual, also, to find specimens that are
cut and polished. Usually the stone is too "crumbly" to take a good
polish. However, it is equally handsome in rough form.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

        ------------------------------------------------------
MALACHITE

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Malachite is a basic copper carbonate. It's
chemistry is Cu2CO3(OH)2. It ranges in color from emerald green thru
grass green to shades of silky pale green. The streak is light green.
It's hardness is 3-1/2 to 4.  Crystals are rare. Most gem specimens
display distinctive concentric colorbanding; (alternating dark green and
light green bands.)

ENVIRONMENT: Malachite is a secondary copper mineral and develops in the
zone of alteration in massive, lode, and disseminated hydrothermal
replacement deposits.  Associated minerals are azurite, limonite, and
2621

chalcopyrite.

OCCURENCE: The copper mines at Bisbee, Chochise Co., Arizona, are famous
for their fine specimens of massive malachite and pseudomorphs of
malachite after azurite. Mines at Morenci in Greenlee Co., and at Globe
in Gila Co., Arizona, have yielded beautiful malachite specimens, of
which some consist of alternating layers of green malachite and blue
azurite. Fine malachite has also come from copper mines in California,
Nevada, Utah, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee.

NAME: The name is from the Greek [moloche], "mallow," an illusion to the
mineral's leaf-green color. Malachite is used as an ore of copper and as
a gemstone.

LEGEND and LORE: It is said that if malachite is worn, it will break
into pieces to warn the wearer of danger.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Used to direct power towards magical goals.
Protective, especially towards children. According to Cunningham, "Small
pieces of malachite placed in each corner of a business building or a
small piece placed in the cash register draws customers. Worn during
business meetings or trade shows, it increases your ability to obtain
good deals and sales. It is the salesperson's stone." (2)

HEALING: If the malachite is of the blue-green variety, it can be
associated with the Sacral Center, or Splenic Chakra (Svadisthana).
Here, it's energy branches to the left, to the spleen. (It is intended
in this position for those who are celebate.) In addition, if it is
grass-green, it can be used at the Lumbar/Solar Plexis Center. "When the
malachite is placed at the solar plexus and a piece of green jade is
placed at the heart center and a double-terminated quartz crystal is
placed between them, people may remember events that have been blocked
for years. They may cry or scream. As these buried emotions are brought
to the surface and released, a great weight is lifted and they soon feel
renewed." (3)

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: I am very careful about using Malachite. It has
been my experience that the emotions that it releases can be very
powerful, to the point of overwhelming some people. On the other hand,
if the individual is ready to deal with them (in a "growth" period) it
may work out just fine. You could "balance" the emotional content with
a pink stone (such as rose quartz) to cut down some on the intensity.

A few years ago, I broke my arm. To do so, I damaged the muscles and
nerves in my wrist. I was in a lot of pain, and was searching for what
I could do to help the situation. During a journey, I saw malachite, so
I found a malachite heart which I held in the palm of the broken arm
while meditating. I got a lot of relief from it. Now, if the wrist acts
up, I use the heart, taped over the wrist area when I go to bed at
night. It seems to help quite a bit. I now recommend malachite for
nerve/muscle damage with some success. (4)

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurance and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2622

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

4. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

          --------------------------------------------------
MOONSTONE

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Moonstone is one variation of Orthoclase. It
owes its beautiful silvery to bluish sheen ('adularescence' or 'schil-
ler') to its composition of extremely thin plates of orthoclase and
albite. The thinner these plates are, the bluer is the sheen. There are
also moonstones consisting mainly of albite. These are less translucent,
but they can occur in a variety of colours: grey, blue, green, brown,
yellow and white. There are also moonstone cat's-eyes. The chemical
composition is KAlSi3O8 and the hardness is 7. The streak is white.

ENVIRONMENT: The potash feldspars are important rock-forming minerals in
plutonic, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks. Adularia and sanidine are
found usually in volcanic rocks.

OCCURENCE: The main countries of origin are Ceylon, southern India (the
district near Kangayam), Tanzia and Malagasy which, together with Burma,
produces some of the finest stones with a deep blue schiller. White
adularia crystals up to 2.5 cm (1") across have been found in gold-bear-
ing quartz veins at Bodie, Mono Co., California, and in the silver mines
of the Silver City district, Owhyee Co., Idaho.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: Moonstone is always cut into cabochons, to display
the cat's-eye, or schiller.

NAME: Adularia (another name for Moonstone) comes from the locality in
Switzerland, the Adula Mts.

LEGEND and LORE: This stone has always been revered because of its lunar
attraction. It was believed that the shiller in the stone would follow
the cycles of the moon. (Becoming greatest when the moon was full.) In
addition, it has always been considered a "feminine, or Goddess" stone.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Meditation with moonstone calls into consciousness
the three-form moon phase goddesses, Diana/Selene/Hecate, the waxing,
Full and waning Moon. These are woman as goddess in her ages and
contradictions, Maiden/Mother/Crone. Cunningham favors this stone for
spells involving love. In addition he has a longish essay on using it
for a "diet" stone.

HEALING: Because of it's feminine nature, Moonstone has long been
considered a "womans healing stone". It is used traditionally for
healing/balancing of female organs and hormones.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: I use Moonstone at the Transpersonal Point, for
connection to the Goddess and Universal Feminine Energy. This is the
connection to dreams and dreaming, feminine "intuition", and "cycles".
There are cycles of time, seasons, the moon, stars, etc. I also use/give
2623

this stone for those clients who are having difficulty being in tune
with the feminine side of their nature.  (Everyone has a masculine and
a feminine side.)

NOTES: In the past, this stone has also been called "Cylon Opal".

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.

3. Other Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.

4. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

5. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

6. Some of the healing information may come from "A Journey Through the
Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

7. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

8. Birthstone poem from "The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious
Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.

            -----------------------------------------------
OBSIDIAN

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Obsidian occurs as volcanic lava flows that are
thick and of limited area. Its black, glassy, lustrous, and often
flow-banded appearance makes it rather easy to distinguish from the
other volcanic rocks with which it is commonly associated. This mineral
forms when a silica-rich magma of granitic composition flows onto the
earth's surface, where it solidifies before minerals can develop and
crystallize. It is, therefore, an amorphous solid or glass rather than
an aggregate of minerals. The hardness of Obsidian is between 6 and 7;
it will scratch window glass. Although generally black, it is more or
less smoky along translucent to transparent edges; other colors are
gray, reddish brown, mahogany and dark green. When it has small white
"flower" designs in it, it is called Snowflake Obsidian. It is also
possible to find pieces with a sheen, or chatoyance. This is often
called Rainbow Obsidian.

ENVIRONMENT: Obsidian is an environment for very few minerals. Lithophy-
sae and spherulites may contain small but beautiful crystals of
feldspar, tridymite, and cristobalite.

OCCURENCE: Some locations of Obsidian bodies are California (Inyo,
Imperial, and Modoc Cos.), Oregon (Crater Lake), Wyoming (Yellowstone
Park), and Mexico (near Pachuca.)
2624

NAME: The name is dervied from the latin name for the mineral, [obsio.]

LEGEND and LORE: Polished pieces of black Obsidian have been used for
Scrying.  Primitive peoples once valued obsidian highly, chipping and
flaking it into knives, spearheads, and many other implements with
razor-sharp edges resulting from the intersecting conchoidal fractures.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Obsidian is a very protective stone. It is also
associated with the inner mysteries of the Goddess, symbolizing entrance
to the labyrinth, the womb or the subconscious self.

HEALING: Because of its protective qualities, Obsidian is a good stone
for those who are soft-hearted and gentle. It will help to guard them
against abuse. This stone cleanses toxins from the liver, so it is also
good for people who are exposed to environmental pollutants.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: This is the "balance" stone for Clear Quartz
Crystals. We jokingly refer to it around here as a "dark sucker"...mean-
ing it will absorb all sorts of negative things. It is also a grounding
stone, and I use it at the Base Chakra (below the feet) at the beginning
of a layout to keep my client "grounded". In India, the women wear
obsidian toe rings for the same purpose. I use Black Obsidian in
conjunction with Quartz. If I'm not using Clear Quartz, I use Snowflake
Obsidian. I also have a piece of Rainbow Obsidian, but it is relatively
new and I haven't finished "conversing" with it, so I have no advice
as to how to use it...at the moment.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

4. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

            ----------------------------------------------
OPAL

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Opal is hydrous silica, often with some iron and
aluminum. Its chemistry is SiO2.nH2O; amount of water varies up to 10
percent. It ranges in color from White, yellow, red, pink, brown to
gray, blue and even colorless. It is most easily recognized by its rich
internal play of colors (opalescence). Its hardness ranges from 5-1/2 to
6-1/2. It is vitreous and pearly. The streak is white. It is not found
in crystal form, rather is is usually massive, botryoidal, reniform,
stalactitic, and/or earthy.

ENVIRONMENT: Opal is a low-temperature mineral and usually develops in
a wide variety of rocks as cavity and fracture fillings. It requently
develops as amygdules in basalt and rhyolite of volcanic rock and
replaces the cells in wood and the shells of clams.
2625

OCCURENCE: Common opal is widespread and can be readily obtained at many
places, but localities for precious opal are rare and seem to localized
in W United States and Mexico. Magnificent examples of opalized wood can
be found in Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, and lively
green fluorescing opal (hyalite) occurs in seams in pegmatites in New
England and North Carolina and in cavities in basalt near Klamath Falls,
Oregon. Beautiful precious opal, as a replacement in wood, has been
obtained in Virgin Valley, Humboldt Co., Nevada.  Excellent fire and
precious opal occur in laval flows in N Mexico. Nevada, Australia, and
Honduras are sources for black opal; Australia and Czechoslovakia
for white opal; Mexico and SW United States for fire opal. 

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: Black, dark blue, dark green opal with dark gray
body color and fine play of colors is called [black opal;] opal with
white or light body color and fine play of color is called [white opal;]
and transparent to translucent opal with body color ranging from
orange-yellow to red and a play of colors is called [fire opal.] Play of
colors depends upon interference of light and is not dependent upon body
color. Black opal is the most highly prized, and fire opal is the most
valued of the orange and red varieties. Most opal is fashioned into
cabochons, but some fire opals are faceted.

NAME: The word is from the Sanskrit [upala,] meaning "precious stone."

LEGEND and LORE: Opal is a birthstone for October.

    "October's child is born for woe,
    And life's vicissitudes must know;
    But lay an  Opal on her breast,
    And hope will lull those foes to rest." (5)

Opals have traditionally been considered "lucky" stones...but only for
those born in the month of October. It has been considered bad luck to
wear them if you were born in any other month.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Opal is considered to be able to confer the gift of
invisibility on its wearer. To accomplish this, Cunningham says "The gem
was wrapped in a fresh bay leaf and carried for this purpose." He also
says, "Opals are also worn to bring out inner beauty. A beauty spell:
Place a round mirror on the altar or behind it so that you can see your
face within it while kneeling.  Place two green candles on eithe side of
the mirror. Light the candles. Empower an opal with your need for beauty
-- while holding the stone, gaze into your reflection. With the scalpel
of your visualization, mold and form your face (and your body) to the
form you desire. Then, carry or wear the opal and dedicate
yourself to improving your appearance." (2)

HEALING: Opals contain all the colors of the other stones, thus, it
could be used in place of any of them. (They are akin to quartz
crystals, in this aspect.) Generally speaking, Opal is used more
frequently for healing the spirit, rather than the physical body.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: Opals are probably my favorite stone. This may be
partially due to the fact that they are my birthstone, and I have been
surrounded by them all of my life. For me, they are protective and
invigorating. I normally use them during Journeying, and when doing
"readings" for other...anything where I am using altered states of
consciousness. I find that they help me to understand the symbols of my
2626

visions in a way that makes them meaningful for others.

                      -------bibliography-------

1. Scientific, Environment, Occurance and Name are from (or paraphrased
from) "The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".

2. Legends and Lore, Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's En-
cyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.

3. Some of the healing information may come from "Color and Crystals, A
Journey Through the Chakras" by Joy Gardner.

4. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.

5. Birthday poem from "The Occult and Curative Powers of Precious
Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.

         -----------------------------------------------------
VESUVIANITE (IDOCRASE)

SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION: Vesuvianite is composed of calcium, magnesium
and aluminum silicate, often with some beryllium and fluorine. The
chemistry is Ca10Mg2Al4(SiO4)5(Si2)7)2(OH)4. Specimens range from brown
and green to a rare yellow or blue. The hardness is 6-1/2.

ENVIRONMENT: Vesuvianite forms by igneous and metamorphic processes. It
commonly is metamorphic and occurs with grossular, wollastonite, and
calcite in hornfels of contact metamorphic rocks; with chromite and
magnetite in serpentinite of hydrothermal metamorphic rocks; and with
wollastonite, andradite, and diopside in carbonatites.

OCCURENCE: Gem-quality Vesuvianite has been obtained from a pegmatite in
marble near Sixteen Island Lake, Laurel, Argenteuil Co., Quebec, and
beautiful micromount cyrstals of purplish-pink color occur in massive
Vesuvianite at the Montral chrome pit at Black Lake, Megantic Co.,
Quebec. The blue variety called [cyprine] has been obtained at Franklin,
Sussex Co., New Jersey. Fine crystals up to 1-1/2 inches across occur in
pale-blue calcite at Scratch Gravel, near Helena, Lewis and Clark Co.,
Montana, and spectacular material of similar nature occurs at quarries
near Riverside, California. Beautiful pale-green massive Vesuvianite
([californite]) occurs in California at Pulga, Butte Co.,
and near Happy Camp, Siskiyou Co., and crude yellow prismatic crystals
occur with grossular at Xalostoc, Morelos, and Lake Jaco, Chihuahua,
Mexico.

GEMSTONE INFORMATION: Translucent gray to green or nearly colorless
Vesuvianite with green streaks is called [californite], and is often
sold as "California Jade." Californite is fashioned into cabochons.
Principal sources are the USSR, Italy, Canada and California.

NAME: The name "Vesuvianite" is from the original locality at Mt.
Vesuvius, Italy. The alternate name, "idocrase," comes from the Greek
[eidos,] "form", and [krasis,] "mixture," because Vesuvianite may appear
to combine the crystal forms of several other minerals.

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LEGEND and LORE: None found.

MAGICAL PROPERTIES: Dolfyn associates this stone with Passion, enthus-
iasm, warmth and devotion.

HEALING: No specific information found, other than what Dolfyn states.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE: None. I do not have a specimen of Vesuvianite.

                      -------bibliography-------
1. Scientific, Environment, Occurence and Name are from (or paraphrased
from)"The Audubon Society field Guide to North American Rocks and
Minerals".
2. Other scientific information may be from "Simon & Schuester's Guide
to Gems and Precious Stones".
3. Precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gemstones" by E. H. Rutland.
4. Other precious and semi-precious gemstone information may come from
"Gem Cutting", sec. ed., by John Sinkankas.
5. Basic Legends, Lore and Magical Properties are from "Cunningham's
Encyclopedia of Crystal, Gem & Metal Magic", by Scott Cunningham.
6. Some magical and healing information from "Crystal Wisdom, Spiritual
Properties of Crystals and Gemstones" by Dolfyn.
7. More legends and lore may come from "Stone Power" by Dorothee L.
Mella.
8. Healing information is from "The Women's Book of Healing", by Diane
Stein.
9. Additional healing information may be from "The Occult and Curative
Powers of Precious Stones" by William T. Fernie, M.D.
10. Personal Experience is from MY personal experience, journals and
notebooks, by <grin> Tandika Star.
................................................................................
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