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1-5. (The same as on p. 2.)

6. Abbreviations used are:--Av. for Avesta. Bund. for Bundahis, as translated in this volume. Dâd. for Dâdistân-i Dînîk. Gr. for Greek. Haug's Essays, for Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Parsis, by Martin Haug, 2nd edition. Huz. for Huzvâris. Pahl. for Pahlavi. Pâz. for Pâzand. Pers. for Persian. Sans. for Sanskrit. Sls. for Shâyast la-shâyast, as translated in this volume. SZS. for Selections of Zâd-sparam, as translated in this volume. Vend. for Vendîdâd, ed. Spiegel. Yas. for Yasna, ed. Spiegel. Yt. for Yast, ed. Westergaard.

7. The manuscripts mentioned in the notes are:--

K20 (about 500 years old), No. 20 in the University Library at Kopenhagen.

Pâz. MSS. (modern), No. 22 of the Haug Collection in the State Library at Munich, and a copy of one in the library of the high-priest of the Parsis at Bombay.

Pers. version (composed A.D. 1496, copied A.D. 1679) in a Rivâyat MS., No. 29 of the University Library at Bombay.



0. May the gratification of the creator Aûharmazd, the beneficent, the developer, the splendid, and glorious, and the benediction of the archangels, which constitute the pure, good religion of the Mazdayasnians, be vigour of body, long life, and prosperous wealth for him whose writing I am[1].

1. As[2] it is declared by the Stûdgar Nask[3] that

[1. Or, possibly, 'for whom I am written,' the meaning of mûn yektîbûnîhêm being not quite clear. In fact, the construction of the whole of this initial benediction is rather obscure.

2. It is possible that this is to be read in connection with Chap. II, 1, with the meaning that 'as it is declared by the Stûdgar Nask that Zaratûst asked for immortality from Aûharmazd, so in the Vohûman Yast commentary it is declared that he asked for it a second time.' This introductory chapter is altogether omitted in both the Pâz. MSS. which have been examined, but it is given in the Pers. version. It is also omitted in the epitome of the Bahman Yast contained in the Dabistân (see Shea's translation, vol. i. pp. 264-271).

3. This was the first nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard, which calls it Sûdkar; but according to the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats it was the second nask, called Stûdgar or Istûdgar. For its contents, as given by the Dînî-vagarkard (which agrees with the account in the Rivâyats), see Haug's Essays, p. 126. In the Dînkard, besides a short description of this Nask, given in the eighth book, there is also a detailed account of the contents of each of its fargards, or chapters, occupying twenty-five quarto pages of twenty-two lines each, in the ninth book. From this detailed statement it appears {footnote p. 192} that the passage mentioned here, in the text, constituted the seventh fargard of the Nask, the contents of which are detailed as follows:--

'The seventh fargard, Tâ-ve-ratö (Av. tâ ve urvâtâ, Vas. XXXI, 1), is about the exhibition to. Zaratûst of the nature of the four periods in the Zaratûstian millennium (hazangrôk zim, "thousand winters"). First, the golden, that in which Aûharmazd displayed the religion to Zaratûst. Second, the silver, that in which Vistâsp received the religion from Zaratûst. Third, the steel, the period within which the organizer of righteousness, Âtarô-pâd son of Mârspend, was born. Fourth, the period mingled with iron is this, in which is much propagation of the authority of the apostate and other villains (sarîtarânö), along with destruction of the reign of religion, the weakening of every kind of goodness and virtue, and the departure of honour and wisdom from the countries of Iran. In the same period is a recital of the many perplexities and torments of the period for that desire (girâyîh) of the life of the good which consists in seemliness. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness (Av. ashem vohû vahistem astî, Yas. XXVII. 14, W.).'

If this be a correct account of the contents of this fargard, the writer was evidently consulting a Pahlavi version of the Nask, composed during the later Sasanian times.]

{p. 192}

Zaratûst asked for immortality from Aûharmazd, then Aûharmazd displayed the omniscient wisdom to Zaratûst, and through it he beheld the root of a tree, on which were four branches, one golden, one of silver, one of steel, and one was mixed up with iron. 2. Thereupon he reflected in this way, that this was seen in a dream, and when he arose from sleep Zaratûst spoke thus: 'Lord of the spirits and earthly existences! it appears that I saw the root of a tree, on which were four branches.'

3. Aûharmazd spoke to Zaratûst the Spîtâmân[1] thus: 'That root of a tree which thou sawest, and those four branches, are the four periods which will

[1. Generally understood to mean 'descendant of Spitama,' who was his ancestor in the ninth generation (see Bund. XXXII, 1).]

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come. 4. That of gold is when I and thou converse, and King Vistâsp shall accept the religion, and shall demolish the figures of the demons, but they themselves remain for[1]. . . . concealed proceedings. 5. And that of silver is the reign of Ardakhshîr[2] the Kayân king (Kaî shah), and that of steel is the reign of the glorified (anôshak-rûbân) Khûsrô son of Kêvâd[3], and that which was mixed with iron is the evil sovereignty of the demons with dishevelled hair[4] of the race of Wrath[5], and when it is the end of the tenth hundredth winter (satô zim) of thy millennium, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân!'

6. It is declared in the commentary (zand)[6] of the Vohûman Yast, Horvadad Yast, and Âstâd Yast

[1. A word is lost here in K20 and does not occur in the other copies and versions, nor can it be supplied from the similar phrase in Chap. II, 16. The meaning of the sentence appears to be that Vistâsp destroyed the idols, but the demons they represented still remained, in a spiritual state, to produce evil.

2. See, Chap. II, 17.

3. Khusrô Nôshirvân son of Qubâd, in modern Persian, who reigned in A. D. 531-579. Kêvâd is usually written Kavâd.

4. The epithet vigârd-vars may also mean 'dressed-hair,' but the term in the text is the more probable, as the Persian version translates it by kushâdah muî, 'uncovered hair.' That it is not a name, as assumed by Spiegel, appears clearly from the further details given in Chap. II, 25.

5. Or, 'the progeny of Aêshm,' the demon. Wrath is not to be understood here in its abstract sense, but is personified as a demon. It is uncertain whether the remainder of this sentence belongs to this § or the next.

6. If there were any doubt about zand meaning the Pahlavi translation, this passage would be important, as the Avesta of the Horvadad (Khordâd) and Âsd Yasts is still extant, but contains nothing about the heretic Mazdîk or Mazdak (see Chap. II, 21). No Avesta of the Vohûman Yast is now known.]

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that, during this time, the accursed Mazdîk son of Bâmdâd, who is opposed to the religion, comes into notice, and is to cause disturbance among those in the religion of God (yazdân). 7. And he, the glorified one[1], summoned Khûsrô son of Mâh-dâd and Dâd-Aûharmazd of Nishâpûr, who were high priests of Âtarô-pâtakân, and Âtarô-frôbâg the undeceitful (akadbâ), Âtarô-pâd, Âtarô-Mitrô, and Bakht-âfrîd to his presence, and he demanded of them a promise[2], thus: 'Do not keep these Yasts in concealment, and do not teach the commentary except among your relations[3].' 8. And they made the promise unto Khûsrô.


1. In the Vohûman Yast commentary (zand) it is declared[4] that Zaratûst asked for immortality from

[1. That is, Khusrô Nôshirvân. As the names of his priests and councillors stand in K20 they can hardly be otherwise distributed than they are in the text, but the correctness of the Ms. is open to suspicion. Dâd-Aûharmazd was a commentator who is quoted in Chap. III, 16, and in the Pahl. Yas. XI, 22; Âtarô-frôbâg was another commentator mentioned in Sls. I, 3; and Âtarô-pâd and Bakht-âfrîd are names well known in Pahlavi literature, the former having been borne by more than one individual (see Sls. I, 3, 4).

2. The Pers. version says nothing about this promise, but states that Khûsrô sent a message to the accursed Mazdak, requiring him to reply to the questions of this priestly assembly on pain of death, to which he assented, and he was asked ten religious questions, but was unable to answer one so the king put him to death immediately.

3. A similar prohibition, addressed to Zaratûst, as regards the Avesta text, is actually found in the Horvadad Yt. 10.

4. This seems to imply that this text is not the commentary {footnote p. 195} itself, but merely an epitome of it. The Pâz. MSS. which have been examined, begin with this chapter.]

{p. 195}

Aûharmazd a second time, and spoke thus: 'I am Zaratûst, more righteous and more efficient among these thy creatures, O creator! when thou shalt make me[1] immortal, as the tree opposed to harm[2], and Gôpatshah, Gôst-i Fryân, and Kîtrôk-miyân son of Vistâsp, who is Pêshyôtanû, were made[3]. 2. When thou shalt make me immortal they in thy good religion will believe that the upholder of religion, who receives from Aûharmazd his pure and good religion of the Mazdayasnians, will become immortal; then those men will believe in thy good religion.'

3. Aûharmazd spoke[4] thus: 'When I shall make thee immortal, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! then Tûr-i Brâdarvash the Karap[5] will become immortal, and

[1. Or, 'when I shall become;' the verb is omitted by mistake in K20.

2. Three of these immortals are mentioned in Bund. XXIX, 5, and Gôst-i Fryân is included in a similar enumeration in Dâd. (Reply 89). The tale of Gôst-i Fryân (Av. Yôistô yô Fryananãm, of Âbân Yt. 81 and Fravardîn Yt. 120) has been published with The Book of Ardâ-Vîrâf,' ed. Hoshangji and Haug.

3. Or, 'became;' most of this verb is torn off in K20.

4. The verb is placed before its nominative in the Pahlavi text, both here and in most similar sentences, which is an imitation of the Avesta, due probably to the text being originally translated from an Avesta book now lost, or, at any rate, to its author's wish that it might appear to be so translated. In such cases of inverted construction, when the verb is in a past tense, the Pahlavi idiom often requires a pronominal suffix, corresponding, to the nominative, to be added to the first word in the sentence; thus, gûftös Aûharmazd, or afas gûft Aûharmazd, does not mean 'Aûharmazd spoke to him (or said it),' but merely 'Aûharmazd spoke'(lit. 'it was said by him, Aûharmazd').

5. According to an untranslated passage in the Selections of Zâd-sparam, mentioned in the note on p. 187, this is the name of {footnote p. 196} one of the five brothers in the Karapân family of sorcerers, who were enemies of Zaratûst during his childhood. Their names, as written in SZS., may be read as follows, 'Brâdarvakhsh, Brâdrôyisnö, Tûr Brâgrêsh, Azânö, and Nasm,' and the first is also called 'Tûr-i 'Brâdarvakhsh;' they are described as descendants of the sister of Manûskîhar. In the seventh book of the Dînkard a wizard, who endeavours to injure Zaratûst in his childhood, is called 'Tûr-i Brâdrôk-rêsh, the Karapö,' and was probably the third brother, whose name (thus corrected) indicates brâthrô-raêsha as its Avesta form. Karap or Karapân in all these passages is evidently the name of a family or caste, probably the Av. karapanô which Haug translates by 'performers of (idolatrous) sacrificial rites,' in connection with Sans. kalpa, 'ceremonial ritual' (see Haug's Essays, pp. 289-291).]

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when Tûr-i Brâdarvash the Karap shall become immortal the resurrection and future existence are not possible.'

4. Zaratûst seemed uneasy about it in his mind[1]; and Aûharmazd, through the wisdom of omniscience, knew what was thought by Zaratûst the Spîtâmân with the righteous spirit, and he[2] took hold of Zaratûst's hand. 5. And he, Aûharmazd the propitious spirit, creator of the material world, the righteous one, even he put the omniscient wisdom, in the shape of water, on the hand of Zaratûst, and said to him thus: 'Devour it.'

[1. K20 has 'among the spirits;' the word mînisn having become maînôkân by the insertion of an extra stroke.

2. Reading afas instead of minas (Huz. of agas, 'from or by him,' which is written with the same letters as afas; 'and by him'), not only here, but also in §§ 5, 7, 9. The copyist of K20 was evidently not aware that afas is a conjunctive form, but confounded it with the prepositional form agas, as most Parsis and some European scholars do still. The Sasanian inscriptions confirm the reading afas for the conjunctive form; and Nêryôsang, the learned Parsi translator of Pahlavi texts into Pâzand and Sanskrit some four centuries ago, was aware of the difference between the two forms, as he transcribes them correctly into Paz. vas and azas.]

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6. And Zaratûst devoured some of it; thereby the omniscient wisdom was intermingled with Zaratûst, and seven days and nights Zaratûst was in the wisdom of Aûharmazd. 7. And Zaratûst beheld the men and cattle in the seven regions of the earth, where the many fibres of hair of every one are, and whereunto the end of each fibre holds on the back. 8. And he beheld whatever trees and shrubs there were, and how many roots of plants were in the earth of Spendarmad, where and how they had grown, and where they were mingled.

9. And the seventh day and night he (Aûharmazd) took back the omniscient wisdom from Zaratûst, and Zaratûst reflected in this way, that I have seen it in a pleasant dream produced by Aûharmazd, and I am not surfeited with the dream. 10. And he took both hands, rubbed his body (kerp) again, and spoke[1] thus: 'I have slept a long time, and am not surfeited with this pleasant dream produced by Aûharmazd.'

11. Aûharmazd said to the righteous Zaratûst thus: 'What was seen in the pleasant dream produced by Aûharmazd?'

12. Zaratûst spoke thus: 'O Aûharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous creator! I have seen a celebrity (khunîd) with much wealth, whose soul, infamous in the body, was hungry (gurs)[2] and jaundiced and in hell, and he did not seem to me exalted; and I saw a beggar with no wealth and helpless, and his soul was thriving (farpîh) in paradise, and[3] he seemed to me exalted.

[1. This verb is omitted in K20 by mistake.

2. Or else 'dirty.'

3. Reading afam instead of minam, both here and in § 14; the {footnote p. 198} copyist of K20 having confounded these two words, like those mentioned in the note on § 4.]

{p. 198}

13. [And I saw a wealthy man without children, and he did not seem to me exalted;][1] and I saw a pauper with many children, and he seemed to me exalted. 14. And I saw a tree on which were seven branches, one golden, one of silver, one brazen, one of copper, [one of tin][2], one of steel, and one was mixed up with iron.'

15. Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! this is what I say beforehand, the one tree which thou sawest is the world which I, Aûharmazd, created; and those seven branches thou sawest are the seven periods which will come. 16. And that which was golden is the reign of King Vistâsp, when I and thou converse about religion, and Vistâsp shall accept that religion and shall demolish the figures of the demons, and the demons desist from demonstration into concealed proceedings; Aharman and the demons rush back to darkness, and care for water, fire, plants, and the earth of Spendarmad[3] becomes apparent. 17. And that which was of silver[4] is the reign of Ardashîr[5] the

[1. The passage in brackets is omitted in K20, but is supplied from the Paz. MSS., being evidently necessary to complete the contrast. It occurs also in the Pers. version.

2. Supplied from the Paz. and Pers. versions, being omitted here in K20, though occurring in § 20.

3. The female archangel who has charge of the earth (see Bund. I, 26).

4 The Pâz. MSS. omit the description of the silver age.

5. Usually identified with Artaxerxes Longimanus, but his long reign of 112 years may include most of the Achæmenian sovereigns down to Artaxerxes Mnemon, several of whom are called Ahasuerus or Artaxerxes in the biblical books of Ezra and Esther. See Bund. XXXI, 30, XXXIV, 8.]

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Kayân (Kaî), whom[1] they call Vohûman son of Spend-dâd[2], who is he who separates the demons from men, scatters them about, and makes the religion current in the whole world. 18. And that which was brazen[3] is the reign of Ardakhshîr[4], the arranger and restorer of the world, and that of King Shahpûr, when he arranges the world which I, Aûharmazd, created; he makes happiness (bûkhtakîh)[5] prevalent in the boundaries of the world, and goodness shall become manifest; and Âtarô-pad of triumphant destiny, the restorer of the true religion, with the prepared brass[6], brings this religion, together with the transgressors, back to the truth. 19. And that which was of copper is the reign of the Askânian king[7], who removes from the world

[1. Reading mûn, 'whom,' instead of amat, 'when' (see the note on Bund. I, 7).

2. Contracted here into Spendâd, as it is also in Bund. XXXIV, 8 in the old MSS. This name of the king is corrupted into Bahman son of Isfendiyâr in the Shâhnâmah.

3. This brazen age is evidently out of its proper chronological order. The Pâzand and Persian versions correct this blunder by describing the copper age before the brazen one here, but they place the brazen branch before the copper one in § 14, so it is doubtful how the text stood originally.

4. Artakhshatar son of Pâpakî and Shahpûharî son of Artakhshatar are the Sasanian forms of the names of the first two monarchs (A.D. 226-271) of the Sasanian dynasty, whose reigns constitute this brazen age.

5. Literally, 'deliverance from sin' or 'salvation' by one's own good works, and, therefore, not in a Christian sense.

6. Referring to the ordeal of pouring molten brass on his chest, undergone by Âtarô-pâd son of Mâraspend, high-priest and prime minister of Shâpûr I, for the purpose of proving the truth of his religion to those who doubted it.

7. It is uncertain which of the Askânian sovereigns is meant, or whether several of the dynasty may not be referred to. The Greek {footnote p. 200} successors of Alexander were subdued in Persia by Ask (Arsaces I), who defeated Seleucus Callinicus about B.C. 236. But the third book of the Dînkard (in a passage quoted by Haug in his Essay on the Pahlavi Language) mentions Valkhas (Vologeses) the Askânian as collecting the Avesta and Zand, and encouraging the Mazdayasnian religion. This Valkhas was probably Vologeses I, a contemporary of Nero, as shown by Darmesteter in the introduction to his translation of the Vendidad.]

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the heterodoxy (gavîd-rastakîh) which existed, and the wicked Akandgar-i Kilisyâkîh[1] is utterly destroyed by this religion, and goes unseen and unknown from the world. 20. And that which was of tin is the reign of King Vâhrâm Gôr[2], when he

[1. I am indebted to Professor J. Darmesteter for pointing out that Nêryôsang, in his Sanskrit translation of Yas. IX, 75, explains Kalasiyâkâh as 'those whose faith is the Christian religion;' the original Pahlavi word in the oldest MSS. is Kilisâyâîk, altogether a misunderstanding of the Avesta name Keresâni, which it translates, but sufficiently near the name in our text to warrant the assumption that Nêryôsang would have translated Kilisyâkîh by 'Christianity;' literally it means 'ecclesiasticism, or the church religion' (from Pers. kilisyâ, Gr. {Greek ?ekklhsi'a}). Akandgar is probably a miswriting of Alaksandar or Sikandar; though Darmesteter suggests that Skandgar (Av. skendô-kara, Pers. sikandgar), 'causer of destruction,' would be an appropriate punning title for Alexander from a Persian point of view. The anachronisms involved in making Alexander the Great a Christian, conquered by an Askânian king, are not more startling than the usual Pahlavi statement that he was a Roman. To a Persian in Sasanian times Alexander was the representative of an invading enemy which had come from the countries occupied, in those times, by the eastern empire of the Christian Romans, which enemy had been subdued in Persia by the Askânian dynasty; and such information would naturally lead to the anachronisms just mentioned. The name Kilisyâkîh is again used, in Chap. III, 3, 5, 8, to denote some Christian enemy.

2. This Sasanian monarch (A. D. 420-439), after considerable provocation, revived the persecution of the heretics and foreign creeds which had been tolerated by his predecessor, and this conduct naturally endeared him to the priesthood.]

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makes the sight[1] of the spirit of pleasure manifest, and Aharman with the wizards rushes back to darkness and gloom. 21. And that which was of steel is the reign of King Khûsrô son of Kêvâd[2], when he keeps away from this religion the accursed Mazdîk[3], son of Bâmdâd, who remains opposed to the religion along with the heterodox. 22. And that which was mixed with iron [is the reign of the demons with dishevelled hair[4] of the race of Wrath, when it is the end of the tenth hundredth winter of thy millennium], O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân!'

23. Zaratûst said thus: 'Creator of the material world! O propitious spirit! what token would you give of the tenth hundredth winter?'

24. Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'Righteous Zaratûst! I will make it clear: the token that it is the end of thy millennium, and the most evil period is coming, is that a hundred kinds, a thousand kinds, a myriad of kinds of demons with dishevelled hair, of the

[1. Reading vênâp (Pers. bînâb), but it may be va davâg, in which case the phrase must be translated as follows: 'when he makes the spirit of pleasure and joy manifest.'

2. See Chap. I, 5. The characteristic of the steel age, like that of the tin one, was the persecution of heretics who had been tolerated by the reigning monarch's predecessor.

3. Generally written Mazdak, a heretic whose teaching was very popular in the time of King Kêvâd (or Kavâd, A. D. 487-531). His doctrine appears to have been extreme socialism built upon a Mazdayasnian foundation. He was put to death by Khûsrô I, as hinted in the text. It is remarkable that none of the successors of Khûsrô Nôshirvân are mentioned in the Bahman Yast, so that a Parsi, who even did not believe in the verbal inspiration of the book, might possibly consider the remainder of it as strictly prophetical.

4. The passage in brackets is omitted in K20 by mistake, and is here supplied from Chap. I, 5, in accordance with the Pâz. and Pers. versions.]

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race of Wrath, rush into the country of Iran (Aîrân shatrô) from the direction of the east[1], which has an inferior race and race: of Wrath. 25. They have uplifted banners, they slay those living in the world[2], they have their hair dishevelled on the back, and they are mostly a small and inferior (nîtûm) race, forward in destroying the strong doer; O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! the race of Wrath is miscreated (vishûd) and its origin is not manifest. 26. Through witchcraft they rush into these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created, since they burn and damage many things; and the house of the house-owner, the land of the land-digger, prosperity, nobility, sovereignty, religion[3], truth, agreement, security, enjoyment, and every characteristic which I, Aûharmazd, created, this pure religion of the Mazdayasnians, and the fire of Vâhrâm, which is set in the appointed place, encounter annihilation, and the direst destruction and trouble will come into notice. 27. And that which is a great district will become a town; that which is a great town, a village; that

[1. Or 'of Khûrâsân.' it is difficult to identify these demons with the Arabs, who came from the west, though a dweller in Kirmân might imagine that they came from Khûrâsân. In fact, hardly any of the numerous details which follow, except their long-continued rule, apply exclusively to Muhammadans. It appears, moreover, from § 50 and Chap. III, 8, that these demons are intended for Tûrks, that is, invaders from Turkistân, who would naturally come from the east into Persia.

2 Reading gêhân-zivö zektelûnd, but the beginning of the latter word is torn off in K20, and the other versions have no equivalent phrase. The Pâzand substitutes the phrase 'black banners, and black garments.'

3. This word, being torn off in K20, is supplied from the Pâz. MSS.]

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which is a great village, a family; and that which is a [great][1] family, a single threshold. 28. O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! they will lead these Iranian countries of Aûharmazd into a desire for evil, into tyranny and misgovernment, those demons with dishevelled hair who are deceivers, so that what, they say they do not do, and they are of a vile religion, so that what they do not say they do. 29. And their assistance and promise have no sincerity, there is no law, they preserve no security, and on the support they provide no one relies; with deceit, rapacity, and misgovernment they will devastate these my Iranian countries, who am Aûharmazd.

30. 'And at that time, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! all men will become deceivers, great friends will become of different parties, and respect, affection, hope[2], and regard for the soul will depart from the world; the affection of the father will depart from the son; and that of the brother from his brother; the son-in-law will become a beggar (kîdyak or kasîk) from his father-in-law[3], and the mother will be parted and estranged from the daughter.

31. 'When it is the end of thy tenth hundredth winter, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! the sun is more unseen and more spotted (vasangtar); the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth of Spendarmad is more barren, and fuller of

[1. This word is omitted in K20, but supplied from the Pâzand. The whole section is omitted in the Pers. version.

2. This word, being torn off in K20, is doubtfully supplied from the Pers. paraphrase. The Pâz. MSS. omit §§ 30-32.

3. Or, perhaps, 'parents- in-law;' the original is khûsrûînê, followed by some word (probably nafsman) which is torn off in K20. The Pers. version gives no equivalent phrase.]

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highwaymen[1]; and the crop will not yield the seed, so that of the crop of the corn-fields in ten cases seven will diminish and three[2] will increase, and that which increases does not become ripe[3]; and vegetation, trees, and shrubs will diminish; when one shall take a hundred, ninety will diminish and ten will increase, and that which increases gives no pleasure and flavour. 32. And men are born smaller, and their skill and strength are less; they become more deceitful and more given to vile practices; they have no gratitude and respect for bread and salt, and they have no affection for their country (dêsak).

33. 'And in that most evil time a boundary has most disrespect[4] where it is the property of a suffering man of religion; gifts are few among their deeds, and duties and good works proceed but little from their hands; and sectarians of all kinds are seeking mischief for them[5]. 34. And all the world will be burying and clothing the dead, and burying the dead and washing the dead will be by law; the burning, bringing to water and fire, and eating of dead matter they practise by law and do not abstain from. 35. They recount largely about duties and good works, and pursue wickedness and the road to hell; and through the iniquity, cajolery, and craving of wrath and avarice they rush to hell.

36. 'And in that perplexing time, O Zaratûst the

[1. Or, 'tax-collectors;' Pahl. tangtar va râs-vânagtar.

2. In K20 'va 3' is corrupted into the very similar va vâi, 'and a portion.'

3. Literally, 'white.'

4. Reading anâzarm instead of hanâ âzarm.

5. That is, for the Iranians in general, who are the 'they' in §§ 32-35.]

{p. 205}

Spîtâmân!--the reign of Wrath with infuriate spear[1] and the demon with dishevelled hair, of the race of Wrath,--the meanest slaves walk forth with the authority of nobles of the land; and the religious, who wear sacred thread-girdles on the waist, are then not able to perform their ablution (pâdîyâvîh), for in those last times dead matter and bodily refuse become so abundant, that one who shall set step to step walks upon dead matter; or when he washes in the barashnûm ceremony, and puts down a foot from the stone seat (magh)[2], he walks on dead matter; or when he arranges the sacred twigs (baresôm) and consecrates the sacred cakes (drônô) in their corpse-chamber (nasâî katak)[3] it is allowable.

[1. The Av. Aêshmô khrvîdrus, 'Aêshma the impetuous assailant' (see Bund. XXVIII, 15-17); this demon's Pahlavi epithet is partly a transcription, and partly a paraphrase of the Avesta term.

2. According to Dastûr Hoshangji (Zand-Pahlavi Glossary, p. 65) the term magh is now applied to the stones on which the person undergoing purification has to squat during ablution in the barashnûm ceremony. Originally, however, Av. magha appears to have meant a shallow hole dug in the earth, near or over which the person squatted upon a seat, either of stone or some other hard material (see Vend. IX). The term for the hole was probably extended to the whole arrangement, including the seat, which latter has thus acquired the name of magh, although magh and maghâk still mean 'a channel or pit' in Persian.

3 The Av. kata of Vend .V, 36-40; a special chamber for the temporary reception of the corpse, when it was impossible to remove it at once to the dakhma, owing to the inclemency of the weather. It should be large enough for standing upright, and for stretching out the feet and hands, without touching either walls or ceiling; that is, not less than six feet cube. The text means that those times will be so distressing, that it will be considered lawful to perform the sacred ceremonies even in a place of such concentrated impurity as a dead-house not actually occupied by a corpse.]

{p. 206}

37. Or, in those last times, it becomes allowable to perform a ceremonial (yazisn) with two men, so that this religion may not come to nothing and collapse[1]; there will be only one in a hundred, in a thousand, in a myriad, who believes in this religion, and even he does nothing of it though it be a duty[2]; and the fire of Vâhrâm, which will come to nothing and collapse, falls off from a thousand to one care-taker, and even he does not supply it properly with firewood and incense; or when a man, who has performed worship and does not know the Nîrangistân[3] ('code of religious formulas'), shall kindle it with good intentions, it is allowable.

38. 'Honourable[4] wealth will all proceed to those of perverted faith (kêvîd-kêshân); it comes to the transgressors, and virtuous doers of good works, from the families of noblemen even unto the priests (môg-mardân), remain running about uncovered; the lower orders take in marriage the daughters of nobles, grandees, and priests; and the nobles, grandees, and priests come to destitution and bondage. 39. The misfortunes of the ignoble will overtake greatness and authority, and the helpless and ignoble will come to the foremost place and advancement; the words of the upholders of religion, and the seal and decision of a just judge will become the

[1. The Pâz. MSS. add, 'and helplessness.'

2 .The Pâz. MSS. add, 'and the prayers and ceremonies that he orders of priests and disciples they do not fulfil.'

3. The name of a work which treats of various ceremonial details, and appears to be a portion of the Pahlavi translation of the seventeenth or Hûspâram Nask, containing many Avesta quotations, which are not now to be found elsewhere.

4. The Pâz. MSS. have misread azîr damîk, 'underground,' instead of âzarmîk.]

{p. 207}

words of random speakers (andêzö-gokân) among the just and even the righteous; and the words of the ignoble and slanderers, of the disreputable and mockers, and of those of divers opinions they consider true and credible, about which they take[1] an oath, although with falsehood, and thereby give false evidence, and speak falsely and irreverently about me, Aûharmazd. 40. They who bear the title of priest and disciples wish evil concerning[2] one another; he speaks vice and they look upon vice; and the antagonism of Aharman and the demons is much brought on by them; of the sin which men commit, out of five[3] sins the priests and disciples commit three sins, and they become enemies of the good, so that they may thereby speak of bad faults relating to one another; the ceremonies they undertake they do not perform, and they have no fear of hell.

41. 'And in that tenth hundredth winter, which is the end of thy millennium, O righteous Zaratûst! all mankind will bind torn hair, disregarding revelation[4], so that a willingly-disposed cloud and a

[1. Literally, 'devour an oath,' which Persian idiom was occasioned by the original form of oath consisting in drinking water prepared in a particular manner, after having invoked all the heavenly powers to bear witness to the truth of what had been asserted (see the Saûgand-nâmah).

2. Reading râî instead of lâ, 'not.' The whole section is omitted by the Pâz. MSS., possibly from politic motives, as the language is plain enough.

3. The Persian paraphrase has 'eight.'

4. Referring probably to the injunctions regarding cutting the hair and paring the nails, with all the proper precautions for preventing any fragments of the hair or nails from lying about, as given in Vend. XVII. One of the penalties for neglecting such precautions is supposed to be a failure of the necessary rains. The {footnote p. 208} words anâstak dînô can also be translated by 'despising the religion.']

{p. 208}

righteous wind are not able to produce rain in its proper time and season. 42. And a dark cloud makes the whole sky night, and the hot wind and the cold wind arrive, and bring along fruit and seed of corn, even the rain in its proper time; and it does not rain, and that which rains also rains more noxious creatures than water; and the water of rivers and springs will diminish, and there will be no increase. 43. And the beast of burden and ox and sheep bring forth more painfully[1] and awkwardly, and acquire less fruitfulness; and their hair is coarser and skin thinner; the milk does not increase and has less cream (karbist); the strength of the labouring ox is less, and the agility of the swift horse is less, and it carries less in a race.

44. 'And on the men in that perplexing time, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! who wear the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, the evil-seeking of misgovernment and much of its false judgment have come as a wind in which their living is not possible, and they seek death as a boon; and youths and children will be apprehensive, and gossiping chitchat and gladness of heart do not arise among them. 45. And they practise the appointed feasts (gasnö) of their ancestors, the propitiation (aûsôfrîd) of angels, and the prayers and ceremonies of the season festivals and guardian spirits, in various places, yet that which they practise they do not believe in unhesitatingly; they do not give rewards lawfully, and

[1. The word appears to be dardaktar, but is almost illegible in K20; it may possibly be kûtaktar, 'more scantily' as the Pâz. MSS. have kôdaktar bahôd, 'become smaller.']

{p. 209}

bestow no gifts and alms, and even those [they bestow][1] they repent of again. 46. And even those men of the good religion, who have reverenced the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, proceed in conformity with (bar-hamakö rûbisn) those ways and customs[2], and do not believe their own religion. 47. And the noble, great, and charitable[3], who are the virtuous of their own country and locality, will depart from their own original place and family[4] as idolatrous; through want they beg something from the ignoble and vile, and come to poverty and helplessness; through them[5] nine in ten of these men will perish in the northern quarter.

48. 'Through their way of misrule everything comes to nothingness and destitution, levity and infirmity; and the earth of Spendarmad opens its mouth wide, and every jewel and metal becomes exposed, such as gold and silver, brass, tin, and lead. 49. And rule and sovereignty come to slaves, such as the Tûrk and non-Tûranian (Atûr) of the army[6], and are turbulent as among the

[1. This verb is omitted in K20.

2. It is rather doubtful whether their own customs are meant, or those of their conquerors. .

3. Or dahâkân may mean 'the skilful.'

4. Reading dûdak instead of rûdak. At first sight the miswriting of r for d seems to indicate copying from a text in the modern Persian character, in which those two letters are often much alike; but it happens that the compounds dû and rû also resemble one another in some Pahlavi handwriting.

5. Whether through poverty and helplessness, or through the conquerors, is not quite clear.

6. Very little reliance can be placed upon the 'details of this sentence, but it is difficult to make any other complete and consistent translation. Darmesteter suggests the reading hênô, 'army,' but another possible reading is Khyôn (Av. Hvyaona), the old name {footnote p. 210} of some country probably in Turkistân, as Argâsp, the opponent of Vistâsp, is called 'lord or king of Khyôn' in the Yâdkâr-i Zarîrân (see also Gôs Yt. 30, 31, Ashi Yt. 50, 51, Zamyâd Yt. 87).]

{p. 210}

mountaineers[1]; and the Kînî[2], the Kâvûlî, the Sôftî, the Rûman (Arûmâyak), and the white-clothed Karmak[3] then attain sovereignty in my countries of Iran, and their will and pleasure will become current in the world. 50. The sovereignty will come from those leathern-belted ones[4] and Arabs (Tâzîgân) and Rûmans to them, and they will be so misgoverning that when they kill a righteous man who is virtuous and a fly, it is all one[5] in their eyes. 51. And the security, fame, and prosperity, the country and families, the wealth and handiwork, the streams, rivers, and springs of Iran, and of those of the good religion, come to those non-Iranians; and the army and standards of the frontiers come to them, and a rule with a craving for wrath advances in the world. 52. And their eyes of avarice are not sated with wealth, and they form hoards of the world's wealth, and conceal them underground; and through wickedness they commit sodomy, hold much intercourse with menstruous women, and practise many unnatural lusts.

[1. Or, 'as the mountain-holding Khûdarak.' Darmesteter suggests that Khûdarak may be an 'inhabitant of Khazar.'

2. Probably the people of Samarkand, which place was formerly called Kîn according to a passage in some MSS. of Tabart's Chronicle, quoted in Ouseley's Oriental Geography, p. 298. See also Bund. XII, 22.

3. The Kâbulî and Byzantine Rûman are plain enough; not so the Sôftî and Karmak (Kalmak or Krimak).

4 That is, the. Tûrks, as appears more clearly from Chap. III, 8, 9. The Arabs are mentioned here, incidently, for the first time, and again in Chap. III, 9, 51.

5. Literally, 'both are one.']

{p. 211}

53. 'And in that perplexing time the night is brighter[1], and the year, month, and day will diminish one-third; the earth of Spendarmad arises, and suffering, death, and destitution become more severe in the world.'

54. Aûharmazd said to Zaratûst the Spîtâmân: 'This is what I foretell: that wicked evil spirit, when it shall be necessary for him to perish, becomes more oppressive and more tyrannical.'

55. So Aûharmazd spoke to Zaratûst the Spîtâmân thus: 'Enquire fully and learn by heart[2] thoroughly! teach it by Zand, Pâzand, and explanation! tell it to the priests and disciples who speak forth in the world, and those who are not aware of the hundred winters, tell it then to them! so that, for the hope of a future existence, and for the preservation of their own souls, they may remove the trouble, evil, and oppression which those of other religions cause in the ceremonies of religion. (dînô yêsnân). 56. And, moreover, I tell thee this, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! that whoever, in that time, appeals for the body is not able to save the soul, for he is as it were fat, and his soul is hungry and lean in hell; whoever appeals for the soul, his body is hungry and lean through the misery of the world, and destitute, and his soul is fat in heaven.'

57 . Zaratûst enquired of Aûharmazd thus: 'O Aûharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world who art righteous!'--He is Aûharmazd through righteous invocation, and the rest through

[1. The Pâz. version adds, 'the motion of the sun is quicker.'

2. Literally, 'make easy.']

{p. 212}

praise; some say 'righteous creator[1]!'--'O creator! in that perplexing time are they righteous? and are there religious people who wear the sacred thread-girdle (kûstîk) on the waist, and celebrate religious rites (dînô)[2] with the sacred twigs (baresôm)? and does the religious practice of next-of-kin marriage (khvêtûk-das) continue in their families?'

58. Aûharmazd said to Zaratûst thus: 'Of the best men is he who, in that perplexing time, wears the sacred thread-girdle on the waist, and celebrates religious rites with the sacred twigs, though not as in the reign of King Vistâsp. 59. Whoever in that perplexing time recites Itâ-âd-yazam (Av. ithâ âd yazamaidê, Yas. Vand XXXVII)[3] and one Ashem-vohû[4], and has learned it by heart, is as though, in the reign of King Vistâsp, it were a Dvâzdah-hômâst[5], with holy-water (zôhar). 60. And by

[1. This interpolated commentary is a pretty clear indication that the writer is translating from an Avesta text.

2. Both Pâz. and Pers. have drônô, 'sacred cakes.'

3. The third hâ or chapter of the Yasna of seven chapters. It worships Aûharmazd as the creator of all good things.

4. See Bund. XX, 2.

5. For the following explanation of the various kinds of hômâst I am indebted to Dastûr Jâmâspji Minochiharji Jâmâsp-Âsâ-nâ of Bombay:--

There are four kinds of hômâst recited by priests for the atonement of any sin that may have been committed by a woman during menstruation, after her purification:--

1. Hômâst consists of prayers recited for 144 days, in honour of the twelve following angels: Aûharmazd, Tîstar, Khûrshêd, Mâh, Âbân, Âdar, Khurdâd, Amerdâd, Spendarmad, Bâd, Srôsh, and Ardâ-fravash. Each angel, in turn, is reverenced for twelve days successively, with one Yasna each day.

2. Khadûk-hômâst, 'one hômâst,' differs from the last merely in adding a Vendidad every twelfth day, to be recited in the {footnote p. 213} Ushahin Gâh (12 P.M. to 6 A.M.) in honour of the angel whose propitiation ends that day.

3. Dah-hômâst, 'ten hômâsts,' differs from the preceding merely in having a Vendidad, in addition to the Yasna, every day.

4. Dvâzdah-hômâst, 'twelve hômâsts,' are prayers recited for 264 days in honour of twenty-two angels, namely. the twelve aforesaid and the following ten: Bahman, Ardibahist, Shahrivar, Mihir, Bahrâm, Râm, Dîn, Rashnû, Gôs, and Âstâd. Each angel, in turn, is reverenced as in the last.

The celebration of hômâst costs 350 rûpîs, that of khadûk-hômâst 422 rûpîs, that of dah-hômâst 1000 rûpîs, and that of dvâzdah-hômâst 2000 rûpîs; but the first and third are now no longer used. The merit obtained by having such recitations performed is equivalent to 1000 tanâpûhars for each Yasna, 10,000 for each Visparad, and 70,000 for each Vendidad recited. A tanâpûhar is now considered as a. weight of 1200 dirhams, with which serious sins and works of considerable merit are estimated; originally it must have meant a sin which was 'inexpiable' by ordinary good works, and, conversely, any extraordinary good work which was just sufficient to efface such a sin.

The amount of merit attaching to such recitations is variously stated in different books, and when recited with holy-water (that is, with all their ceremonial rites) they are said to be usually a hundred times as meritorious as when recited without it.]

{p. 213}

whomever prayer is offered up, and the Gâtha-hymns are chanted, it is as though the whole ritual had been recited, and the Gâtha-hymns consecrated by him in the reign of King Vistâsp. 61. The most perfectly righteous of the righteous is he who remains in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians, and continues the religious practice of next-of-kin marriage in his family.'

62. Aûharmazd said to the righteous Zaratûst: 'In these nine thousand years which I, Aûharmazd, created, mankind become most perplexed in that perplexing time; for in the evil reigns of Az-i Dahâk and Frâsîyâv of Tûr mankind, in those perplexing times, were living better and living more

{p. 214}

numerously, and their disturbance by Aharman and the demons was less. 63. For in their evil reigns, within the countries of Iran, there were not seven[1] towns which were desolate as they will be when it is the end of thy millennium, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! for all the towns of Iran will be ploughed up by their horses' hoofs, and their banners will reach unto Padashkhvârgar[2], and they will carry away the sovereignty of the seat of the religion I approve from there; and their destruction comes from that place, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! this is what I foretell.'

64. Whoever[3] of those existing, thus, with reverence unto the good, performs much worship for Aûharmazd, Aûharmazd, aware of it through righteousness, gives him whatsoever Aûharmazd is aware of through righteousness, as remuneration and reward of duty and good works, and such members of

[1. So in the Pâzand, but 'seventeen' in Persian; in K20 the word is partly illegible, but can be no other number than sibâ, seven.'

2. The mountainous region south of the Caspian (see Bund. XII, 2, 17).

3. This section is the Pahlavi version of an Avesta formula which is appended to nearly two-thirds of the hâs or chapters of the Yasna, and, therefore, indicates the close of the chapter at this point. The version here given contains a few verbal deviations from that given in the Yasna, but none of any importance. The Avesta text of this formula is as follows:--

YêNhê hâtãm âad, yêsnê paitî
vanghô mazdau ahurô vaêthâ, ashâd hakâ,
yaunghãmkâ, tãskâ tauskâ yazamaidê.

And it may be translated in the following manner:--

'Of whatever male of the existences, therefore, Ahuramazda was better cognizant, through righteousness in worship, and of whatever females, both those males and those females we reverence.']

{p. 215}

the congregation, males and females, I reverence; and the archangels, who are also male and female, they are good.


1. Zaratûst enquired of Aûharmazd thus: 'O Aûharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous one! whence do they restore this good religion of the Mazdayasnians? and by what means will they destroy these demons with dishevelled hair[1], of the race of Wrath? 2. O creator! grant me death! and grant my favoured ones death I that they may not live in that perplexing time; grant them exemplary living! that they may not prepare wickedness and the way to hell.'

3. Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! after the ill-omened[2] sovereignty of those of the race of Wrath[3] there is a fiend, Shêdâspîh[4] of the Kilisyâkîh, from the countries of Salmân[5]; Mâhvand-dâd

[1. The Pâz. MSS. insert, 'and black clothing' here.

2. Literally, 'black-marked,' or possibly, 'black standard.'

3. The Pâz. MSS. add, 'the leathern-belted Tûrks,' that is, people of Turkistân.

4. This fiend appears to be a personification of Christianity or 'ecclesiasticism' (Kilisyâkîh, see Chap. II, 19), and the writer seems to place his appearance some time in the middle ages, probably before the end of the thirteenth century (see the note on 144). Darmesteter suggests that Shêdâsp may have been intended as a modern counterpart of Bêvarâsp (Az-i Dahâk), the ancient tyrant; and that this Christian invasion may be a reminiscence of the crusades.

5. I have formerly read Mûsulmân instead of min Salmân, and hence concluded that the text must have been written long {footnote p. 216} after the Muhammadan conquest of Persia; but this reading is irreconcilable with the context. The position of Salmân (Av. Sairima) is defined by Bund. XX, 12, which places the sources of the Tigris in that country.]

{p. 216}

said that these people are Rûman (Arûmâyîk), and Rôshan[1] said that they have red weapons, red banners, and red hats (kûlâh). 4. 'It is when a symptom of them appears, as they advance, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! the sun and the dark show signs, and the moon becomes manifest of various colours; earthquakes (bûm-guzand), too, become numerous, and the wind comes mote violently; in the world want, distress, and discomfort come more into view; and Mercury and Jupiter advance the sovereignty for the vile[2], and they are in hundreds and thousands and myriads. 5. They have the red banner of the fiend Shêdâspîh of Kilisyâkîh, and they hasten much their progress to these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created, up to the bank of the Arvand[3] some have said[4] the Frât[5] river, 'unto the Greeks (Yûnân) dwelling in Asûristân;' they are Greeks by strict reckoning[6],

[1. The name. of a commentator, or commentary, often quoted in the Pahlavi Vendidad, and other texts. Mâhvand-dâd is mentioned in the Pahlavi Yasna (see Sls. I, 4).

2 The Pâz. MSS. state that 'Mercury and Jupiter beat down the strength of Venus.'

3. Here written Arang, Arand, or Arvad, but as it is Arvand in §§ 21, 38, that reading seems preferable, the difference between the two names in Pahlavi being merely a single stroke. The Arvand is the Tigris, and the Arang probably the Araxes (see SZS. VI, 20, Bund. XX, 8)..

4. Literally, 'there are and were some who said;' this phrase occurs several times in the latter part of this text.

5. The Euphrates.

6 Or, 'of strict reckoning,' reading sâkht amâr, but both reading and meaning are very uncertain. As it stands in K26 it {footnote p. 217} may be sâkht gumâl, 'extreme beauty,' or Sâkhtîmâr (the name of a place), or this may stand for sâkht tîmâr, 'severe misfortune;' and other readings are possible.]

{p. 217}

and their Assyrian dwelling is this, that they slay the Assyrian people therein, and thus they will destroy their abode, some have said the lurking-holes (grêstak) of the demons.

6. 'They turn back those of the race of Wrath[1] in hundreds and thousands and myriads; and the banners, standards, and an innumerable army of those demons with dishevelled hair will come to these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created. 7. And the army of the invader[2] is an extending enemy of the Tûrk[3] and even the Karm[4], be it with banners aloft when he shall set up a banner, be it through the excessive multitude which will remain--like hairs in the mane of a horse--in the countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created.

8. 'The leathern-belted Tûrk and the Rûman Shêdâspîh of Kilisyâkîh come forth with simultaneous movement[5], and in three places, with similar strife, there was and will be three times a great contest (ârdîh), O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! One in the reign of Kaî-Kâûs[6], When through

[1. It is not quite clear which party will turn the other back.

2. Literally, 'extender,' that is, one engaged in extending his own dominions.

3. The remainder of this § (except the verb 'remain') is Pâzand written in Persian characters in K20.

4. Possibly the Karmak of Chap. II, 49. In § 20 the Kurd and Karmân (or Karms) may refer to the Tûrk and Karm of this §, so it is doubtful whether Tûrk or Kurd is meant.

5. Or, 'for the encounter,' pavan ham-rasisnîh.

6. See Bund. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7. The letters are here joined together, so as to become Kai-gâûs, and this form of the name is {footnote p. 218} often read Kâhûs or Kahôs in Pâzand (see Mkh. VIII, 27, XXVII, 54, LVII, 21). The Pâz. MSS. omit § 9.]

{p. 218}

the assistance of demons it was with the archangels; and the second when thou, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! receivedst the religion and hadst thy conference, and King Vistâsp and Argâsp[1], miscreated by wrath, were, through the war of the religion, in the combat of Spêd-razûr ("the hoary forest[2]"),' some have said it was in Pars; 'and the third when it is the end of thy millennium, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! when all the three, Tûrk, Arab, and Rûman, come to this[3] place,' some have said the plain of Nîsânak[4]. 10. 'And all those of the countries of Iran, which I, Aûharmazd, created, come from their own place unto Padashkhvârgar[5], owing to those of the race of Wrath, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! so that a report of something of the cave dwellings, mountain dwellings, and river dwellings of these people will remain at Padashkhvârgar and Pârs; some have said the fire Visnâsp[6], on the deep Lake Kêkast which has medicinal water opposed to the demons, is there (in Padashkhvârgar?) as it were conspicuous,' some have said 'originating[7],' 'so that

[1. See Bund. XII, 32, 33.

2. See Bund. XXIV, 16.

3. Perhaps 'one' is meant, as hanâ, 'this,' is sometimes substituted for aê, 'one,' both being read e in Pâzand.

4. The reading of this name is quite uncertain.

5. See Chap. II, 63. The whole of the final clause of this section, about the fire Visnâsp, is inserted parenthetically at this point in the Pahlavi text.

6. Elsewhere called Gûsnasp, Gûsnâsp, or Gûsasp (see SZS. VI, 22).

7. The most obvious reading of this word is mâhîk,' fish,' which can hardly be reconciled with the context. The view here taken is that the writer was translating from an Avesta text, and met {footnote p. 219} with the word kithra, which means both pêdâk, 'clear,' and tôkhmak, 'originating,' but to express the latter meaning he used the synonym mâyakîk, which can be written exactly like mâhîk. Owing to the involved character of this section it is not very clear in English, but it is still more obscure in the Pahlavi text, in which the whole of this clause about the fire is inserted parenthetically after the first mention of Padashkhvârgar.]

{p. 219}

they may use it anew, and the fire may become shining in these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created. 11. For when one shall be able to save his own life, he has then no recollection of wife, child, and wealth, that they may not live, in that perplexing time, O Zaratûst! yet the day when the hundredth winter becomes the end of thy millennium, which is that of Zaratûst, is so that nothing wicked may go from this millennium into that millennium[1].'

[1. This last clause may be read several ways, and it is by no means easy to ascertain clearly the chronological order of the events which are jumbled together in this last chapter. But it would appear that Zaratûst's millennium was to end at a time when the religion was undisturbed, and just before the incursion of the demons or idolators, the details of which have been given in Chap. II, 2 2-III, II, and which is the first event of Hûshêdar's millennium (see § 13). Now according to Bund. XXXIV, 7-9, the interval from 'the coming of the religion,' in the reign of Kaî-Vistâsp, to the end of the Sasanian monarchy was 90 + 112 + 30 + 12 + 14 + 14 + 284 + 460 =1016 years. If by 'the coming of the religion' be meant the time when Zaratûst received it, as he was then thirty years old, he must have been born 1046 years before the end of the Sasanian monarchy (A. D. 651), and the end of his millennium must have been in A. D. 605, the sixteenth year of Khûsrô Parvîz, when the Sasanian power was near its maximum, and only a score of years before it began suddenly to collapse. This close coincidence indicates that the writer of the Bahman Yast must. have adopted the same incorrect chronology as is found in the Bundahis. If, however, I the coming of the religion' mean its acceptance by Vistâsp, which occurred in Zaratûst's fortieth or {footnote p. 220} forty-second year, his birth must have been ten or twelve years earlier. and his millennium must have ended A. D. 593-595. But according to the imperfect chronology of Bund. XXXIV the tenth millennium of the world, that of Capricornus, commenced with 'the coming of the religion,' and ended, therefore, in A. D. 635, the fourth year of Yazdakard, the last Sasanian king, when the Muhammadans were just preparing for their first invasion; so the millennium of Aquarius is very nearly coincident with that of Hûshêdar, and may probably be intended to represent it. It appears, therefore, that the millennium of Hûshêdar is altogether past, having extended from A. D. 593-635 to A. D. 1593-1635.]

{p. 220}

12. Zaratûst enquired of Aûharmazd thus: 'O Aûharmazd, propitious spirit! creator of the material world, righteous one! when they are so many in number, by what means will they be able to perish[1]?'

13. Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! when the demon with dishevelled hair of the race of Wrath comes into notice in the eastern quarter, first a black token becomes manifest, and Hûshêdar son of Zaratûst is born on Lake Frazdân[2]. 14. It is when he comes to his conference with me[3], Aûharmazd, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân!' that in the direction of Kînistân[4], it is said--some have said among the Hindus--'is born a prince (kaî); it is his father, a prince of the Kayân race, approaches the

[1. The Paz. MSS. omit § 12. The writer having detailed the evils of the iron age, now returns to its commencement in order to describe the means adopted for partially counteracting those evils.

2. See Bund. XXII, 5, XXXII, 8. The Pâz. MSS. add, 'they bring him up in Zâvulistân and Kâvulistân;' and the Pers. version says, 'on the frontier of Kâbulistân.' With regard to the time of Hûshêdar's birth, see § 44. His name is always written Khûrshêdar in K20.

3. The Pâz. and Pers. versions say, 'at thirty years of age,' as in § 44.

4. Possibly Samarkand (see Chap. II, 49. note 2).]

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women, and a religious prince is born to him; he calls his name Vâhrâm the Vargâvand[1],' some have said Shahpûr. 15. 'That a sign may come to the earth, the night when that prince is born, a star falls from the sky; when that prince is born the star shows a signal.' 16. It is Dâd-Aûharmazd[2] who said that the month Âvân and day Vâd[3] is his father's end; 'they rear him with the damsels of the king, and a woman becomes ruler.

17. 'That prince when he is thirty years old'--some have told the time--'comes with innumerable banners and divers armies, Hindu and Kînî[4], having uplifted banners--for they set up their banners--having exalted banners, and having exalted weapons; they hasten up with speed[5] as far as the Vêh river'--some have said the country of Bambö[6]--as far as Bukhâr and the Bukhârans within its bank,

[1. Bahrâm the illustrious or splendid (Av. varekanghand, compare Pers. varg), an epithet applied, in the Avesta, to the moon, Tistrya, the scriptures, the royal glory of the Kayânians, the Kayânians themselves, and the hero Thrita. This personage may possibly be an incarnation of the angel Bahrâm, mingled with some reminiscences of the celebrated Persian general Bahrâm Kôpîn; but see §§ 32, 49.

2 A commentator who is quoted in the Pahlavi Yas. XI, 22; see also Chap. I, 7.

3. The 22nd day of the eighth month of the Parsi year, corresponding to October 7th when the year began at the vernal equinox, as the Bundahis (XXV, 6, 7, 20, 21) describes.

4. That is, Bactrian and Samarkandian.

5. Or, 'light up with glitter,' according as we read tâgend or tâvend. The Pâz. MSS. omit §§ 17-44, except one or two isolated phrases.

6. Spiegel was inclined to identify this name with Bombay, but this is impossible, as the MS. K20 (in which the name occurs) was written some two centuries before the Portuguese invented the name of Bombay. Its original name, by which it is still called by {footnote p. 222} its native inhabitants, being Mumbaî. The locality mentioned in the text is, evidently to be sought on the banks of the Oxus near Bukhârâ; the Oxus having been sometimes considered the upper course of the Arag, and sometimes that of the Veh (see Bund. XX, 22, note 5). It is hardly probable that either Bâmî (Balkh) or Bâmiyân would be changed into Bambö, and the only exact representative of this name appears to be Bamm, a town about 120 miles S. E. of Kirmân; this is quite a different locality from that mentioned in the text, but it is hazardous to set bounds to the want of geographical knowledge displayed by some of the Pahlavi commentators.]

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O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! 18. When the star Jupiter comes up to its culminating point (bâlist)[1] and casts Venus down, the sovereignty comes to the prince. 19. Quite innumerable are the champions, furnished with arms and with banners displayed,' some have said from Sagastân, Pârs, and Khûrâsân, some have said from the lake of Padashkhvârgar[2], some have said from the Hirâtîs[3] and Kôhistân, some have said from Taparistân[4]; and from those directions 'every supplicant for a child[5] comes into[6] view. 26. It is concerning the displayed banners and very numerous army, which were the armed men, champions, and soldiers from the countries of Iran at Padashkhvârgar--whom I told thee[7] that they call both Kurd and Karmân--it is declared

[1. Compare SZS. IV, 8. Here the triumph of Jupiter over Venus appears to be symbolical of the displacement of the queen dowager by her son.

2. That is, from the southern shore of the Caspian.

3. Reading Hiriyân, but this is doubtful, as it may be 'from the citadels (arigânö), or defiles (khalakânö), of Kôhistân.'

4. See Bund. XII, 17, XIII, 15.

5. That is, every man able to bear arms.

6. Reading pavan, 'into,' instead of barâ, 'besides' (see SZS. VIII, 2, note 5).

7. See § 10, but as nothing is said there about Kurd or Karmân, it is possible that the writer meant to say, 'of whom I told thee, {footnote p. 223} and whom they call both Kurd and Karmân.' It is more probable, however, that he is referring to § 7.]

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that they will slay an excessive number, in companionship and under the same banner, for these countries of Iran.

21. 'Those of the race of Wrath and the extensive army[1] of Shêdâspîh, whose names are the two-legged wolf and the leathern-belted demon on the bank of the Arvand[2], wage three battles, one in Sped-razûr[3] and one in the plain of Nîsânak;' some have said that it was on the lake of the three races, some have said that it was in Marûv[4] the brilliant, and some have said in Pârs. 22. 'For the support of the countries of Iran is the innumerable army of the east; its having exalted banners', is that they have a banner of tiger skin (bôpar pôst), and their wind banner is white cotton[6]; innumerable are the mounted troops, and they ride up to the lurking-holes[7] of the demons; they will slay so that a thousand women can afterwards see and kiss but one man.

[1. Compare § 7. The 'extensive army' and 'two-legged wolf" are terms borrowed apparently from Yas. IX, 62, 63.

2. That is, 'the rapid' (Av. aurvand). The other names of this river, Tigris and Hiddekel, have the same meaning. See §§ 5, 38.

3. See § 9, of which this is a recapitulation, but the first of the three battles is here omitted by mistake.

4. Marv in the present Turkistân.

5. Referring to § 17.

6. Supposing that bandôk may be equivalent to Pers. bandak, but the usual Pahlavi term for cotton is pumbak (Pers. punbah).

7. Reading grestak as in § 5, but the word can also be read dar dîdak, 'gate watch-tower.' It is possible that the drugö geredha, 'pit of the fiend,' of Vend. III, 24, may be here meant; the gate of hell, whence the demons congregate upon the Arezûr ridge (Bund. XII, 8).]

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23. 'When it is the end of the time', O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! those enemies will be as much destroyed as the root of a shrub when it is in the night on which a cold winter arrives, and in this night it sheds its leaves; and they will reinstate these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created[2].

24. 'And with speed rushes the evil spirit, with the vilest races of demons and Wrath with infuriate spear[3], and comes on to the support and assistance of those demon-worshippers and miscreations of wrath, O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! 25. And I, the creator Aûharmazd, send Nêryôsang the angel and Srôsh the righteous[4] unto Kangdez[5], which the illustrious Sîyâvakhsh[6] formed, and to Kîtrô-mîyân[7] son of Vistâsp, the glory of the Kayâns, the just restorer of the religion, to speak thus: "Walk forth, O illustrious Pêshyôtanû! to these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created; consecrate the fire and waters for the Hâdôkht[8] and Dvâzdah-hômâst!

[1. Compare, 'and at the time of the end' (Dan. xi. 40). The writer appears to be here finally passing from a description of the past into speculations as to the future, which he has hitherto only casually indulged in.

2. The supernatural means supposed to be employed for the destruction of the wicked and the restoration of the good are detailed in the following paragraphs.

3. See Chap. II, 36.

4. The two angels who are the special messengers of Aûharmazd to mankind (see Band. XV, 1, XXX, 29). This message was expected to be sent to Pêshyôtanû near the end of Hûshêdar's millennium (see § 51).

5. See Bund. XXIX, 10.

6. See Bund. XXXI, 25.

7. A title of Pêshyôtanû, written Kitrô-maînô in Bund. XXIX, 5.

8. This was the twentieth nask or 'book' of the complete Mazdayasnian literature, according to the Dînkard; but the Dînî-vagarkard and the Rivâyats make it the twenty-first, and say very {footnote p. 225} little about its contents (see Haug's Essays, pp. 133, 134). The Dînkard, in its eighth book, gives the following account of this Nask:--

'The Hâdôkht as it exists has three divisions among its 133 sections. The first has thirteen (twelve?) sections, treatises upon the nature of the recital of the Ahunavar, which is the spiritual benefit from chanting it aloud, and whatever is on the same subject. Admonition about selecting and keeping a spiritual and worldly high-priest, performing every duty as to the high-priest, and maintaining even those of various high-priests. On the twenty-one chieftainships of the spirits in Aûharmazd, and of the worldly existences in Zaratûst, among which are the worship of God and the management of the devout. On the duty requisite in each of the five different periods of the day and night, and the fate at the celestial bridge of him who shall be zealous in the celebration of the season-festivals; he who does not provide the preparations for the feast of the season-festivals, and who is yet efficient in the other worship of God. On how to consider, and what to do with, a leader of the high-priest class and a man of the inferior classes; he who atones for unimportant sin, and he who does not atone even for that which is important, and whatever is on the same subject. On the apparatus with which ploughed land (?) is prepared. On the manifestation of virtuous manhood, and the merit and advantage from uttering good words for blessing the eating and drinking of food and drink, and rebuking the inward talk of the demons. On the recitations at the five periods of the day, and the ceremonial invocation by name of many angels, each separately, and great information on the same subject; the worthiness of a man restrained by authority the giving of life and body to the angel the good rulers, and their examination and satisfaction; the blessing and winning words which are most successful in carrying off the affliction which proceeds from a fiend. On all-pleasing creativeness and omniscience, and all precedence (?), leadership, foresight(?), worthy liberality, virtue (?), and every proper cause and effect of righteousness; the individuality of righteousness, the opposition to the demons of Aûharmazd's opinion, and also much other information in the same section.

'The middle division has 102 sections, treatises on spiritual and worldly diligence, the leadership of the diligent, and their mighty {footnote p. 226} means, all former deeds of righteousness; righteousness kindling the resolution is the reward of merit, each for each, and is adapted by it for that of which it is said that it is the Hâdôkht which is the maintaining of righteousness, so that they may make righteousness more abiding in the body of a man.

'The last division has nineteen sections of trusty remedies, that is, remedies whose utterance aloud by the faithful is a chief resource among the creatures of God; also the nature of sayings full of humility, well-favoured, most select, and adapted for that of which it is said that I reverence that chief, the excellent and eminent Hâdôkht, of which they trust in the sustaining strength of every word of Zaratûst. Perfect is the excellence of righteousness (Av. ashem vohû vahistem astî).'

According to tradition three chapters of this Nask are still extant, being the Yast fragments XXI, XXII of Westergaard's edition of the Avesta Texts; but they do not correspond to any part of the description in the Dînkard. For a description of Dvâzdah-hômâst see Chap. II, 59.]

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that is, celebrate them with the fire and waters, and such as is appointed about the fire and waters!"

{p. 226}

26. 'And Nêryôsang proceeds, with Srôsh the righteous, from the good Kakâd-i-Dâîtîk[1] to Kangdez, which the illustrious Sîyâvakhsh formed, and cries out from it thus: "Walk forth, O illustrious Pêshyôtanû! O Kîtrô-mîyân son of Vistâsp, glory of the Kayâns, just restorer of the religion! walk forth to these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created! restore again the throne of sovereignty of the religion!"

27. 'Those spirits move on, and they propitiate them; with holy-water the illustrious Pêshyôtanû celebrates the Dvâzdah-hômâst, with a hundred and fifty righteous who are disciples of Pêshyôtanû, in black marten fur, and they have garments as it were of the good spirit. 28. They walk up with the words: "Hûmat, hûkht, hûvarst[2]" and consecrate

[1. See Bund. XII, 7.

2. That is, 'good thoughts, good words, and good deeds,' a formula often uttered when commencing an important action.]

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the fire of the waters; with the illustrious Hâdôkht they bless me, Aûharmazd, with the archangels, and after that it demolishes one-third of the opposition. 29. And the illustrious Pêshyôtanû walks forth, with the hundred and fifty men who wear black marten fur, and they celebrate the rituals (yasnân) of the Gadman-hômand ("glorious") fire, which they call the Rôshanô-kerp ("luminous form")[1], which is established at the appointed place (dâtô-gâs), the triumphant ritual of the Frôbâ fire, Horvadad, and Amerôdad, and the ceremonial (yazisn) with his priestly co-operation; they arrange and pray over the sacred twigs; and the ritual of Horvadad and Amerôdad, in the chapter of the code of religious formulas (nîrangistân)[2] demolishes three-thirds of the opposition. 30. Pêshyôtanû son of Vistâsp walks forth, with the assistance of the Frôbâ fire, the fire Gûsnâsp, and the fire Bûrzîn-Mitrô[3], to the great idol-temples, the abode of the demons[4]; and the wicked evil spirit, Wrath with infuriate spear[5], and all demons and fiends, evil races and wizards, arrive at the deepest abyss of hell; and those idol-temples are extirpated by the exertions of the illustrious Pêshyôtanû.

31. 'And I, the creator Aûharmazd, come to Mount Hûkaîryâd[6] with the archangels, and I issue

[1. See Bund. XVII, 5, 6. This appears to be an allusion to the removal of the sacred fire by Vistâsp, from the, 'glorious' mountain in Khvârizem to the 'shining' mountain in Kâvulistân.

2. See Chap. II, 37.

3. Regarding these three manifestations of the sacred fire, see Bund. XVII, 3-9, SZS. XI, 8-10.

Supplying the word sêdâân, 'the demons,' in accordance with 36, 37; there being clearly some word omitted in K20.

4. See Chap. II, 36.

5. Hûgar the lofty in Bund. XII, 2, 5.]

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orders to the archangels that they should speak to the angels of the spiritual existences thus: "Proceed to the assistance of the illustrious Pêshyôtanû!" 32. Mitrô of the vast cattle-pastures, Srôsh the vigorous, Rashn the just, Vâhrâm[1] the mighty, Âstâd the victorious, and the glory of the religion of the Mazdayasnians, the stimulator of religious formulas (nîrang), the arranger of the world, proceed[2] to the assistance of the illustrious Pêshyôtanû, through the order of which I, the creator, have just written[3].

33. 'Out of the demons of gloomy race the evil spirit cries to Mitrô of the vast cattle-pastures thus: "Stay above in truth[4], thou Mitrô of the vast cattle-pastures!"

34. 'And then Mitrô of the vast cattle-pastures cries thus: "of these nine thousand years' support, which during its beginning produced Dahâk of evil religion, Frâsîyâv of Tûr, and Alexander[5] the Rûman, the period of one thousand years of those leathern-belted demons with dishevelled hair is a more than moderate reign to produce[6]."

35. 'The wicked evil spirit becomes confounded when he heard this; Mitrô of the vast cattle-pastures will smite Wrath of the infuriate spear with

[1. The fact that the angel Vâhrâm goes in his spiritual forth to the assistance of Pêshyôtanû, rather militates against the idea that be also goes in the form of Vâhrâm the Vargâvand.

2. This verb is omitted by mistake in K20.

3. Literally, 'arrive at the writing.'

4. Or, 'stand up with honesty.'

5. The latter two names are here written Frâsâv and Alasandar.

6. From this it appears that the writer expected the evil reign of the unbelievers to last a thousand years, that is, till the end of Hûshêdar's millennium, about A.D. 1593-1635, which corresponds very closely with the reign of the great Shâh `Abbâs.]

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stupefaction; and the wicked evil spirit flees, with the miscreations and evil progeny he flees back to the darkest recess of hell. 36. And Mitrô of the vast cattle-pastures cries to the illustrious Pêshyôtanû thus: "Extirpate and utterly destroy the idol-temples, the abode of the demons! proceed to these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created! restore again the throne of sovereignty of the religion over the wicked! when they see thee they will be terrified."

37. 'And the illustrious Pêshyôtanû advances, and the fire Frôbâ, the fire Gûsnasp, and the triumphant fire Bûrzîn-Mitrô will smite the fiend of excessive strength; he will extirpate the idol-temples that are the abode of demons; and they celebrate the ceremonial (yazisn), arrange the sacred twigs, solemnize the Dvâzdah-hômâst, and praise me, Aûharmazd, with the archangels; this is what I foretell[1]. 38. The illustrious Pêshyôtanû walks forth to these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created, to the Arvand and Vêh river[2]; when the wicked see him they will be terrified, those of the progeny of gloom and those not worthy.

39. 'And regarding that Vâhrâm the Vargâvand it is declared that he comes forth in full glory, fixes upon Vandîd-khîm[3] ("a curbed temper"), and having intrusted him with the seat of mobadship of the

[1. Or, perhaps 'what I said before,' being already narrated in § 29 as performed by Pêshyôtanû before advancing far into Iran.

2. The Tigris and the Oxus-Indus (see §§ 5, 21).

3. Probably a title of Pêshyôtanû; a more obvious translation would be, 'restrains a curbed temper, and is intrusted,' &c,, but it is hardly probable that the warrior prince Vâhrâm could become a priest. It is Vâhrâm's business to restore the empire, leaving Pêshyôtanû to restore the religion.]

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mobads[1], and the seat of true explanation of the religion, he restores again these countries of Iran which I, Aûharmazd, created; and he drives[2] away from the world covetousness, want, hatred, wrath, lust, envy, and wickedness. 40. And the wolf period goes away, and the sheep period comes on; they establish the fire Frôbâ, the fire Gûsnâsp, and the fire Bûrzîn-Mitrô again at their proper places, and they will properly supply the firewood and incense; and the wicked evil spirit becomes confounded and unconscious, with the demons and the progeny of gloom. 41. And so the illustrious Pêshyôtanû speaks thus: "Let the demon be destroyed, and the witch be destroyed! let the fiendishness and vileness of the demons be destroyed! and let the gloomy progeny of the demons be destroyed! The glory[3] of the religion of the Mazdayasnians prospers, and let it prosper! let the family[4] of the liberal and just, who are doers of good deeds, prosper! and let the throne of the religion and sovereignty have a good restorer!" 42. Forth comes the illustrious Pêshyôtanû, forth he comes with a hundred and fifty men of the disciples who wear black marten fur, and they take the throne of their own religion and sovereignty.'

43. Aûharmazd said to Zaratûst the Spîtâmân: 'This is what I foretell, when it is the end of thy millennium it is the beginning of that of Hûshêdar[5].

[1. The supreme high-priesthood, or primacy.

2. Merely a guess, as the verb varafsêd is difficult to understand.

3. K20 has nismô, 'soul,' but the very similarly written gadman, 'glory,' is a more likely reading here (see § 32).

4. Reading dûdak instead of rûdak, as in Chap. II, 47.

5. The writer having detailed the supernatural means employed for restoring the religion, now returns to the birth of Hûshêdar {footnote p. 231} (§ 13) for the purpose of mentioning some of his actions, and making the chronology of his millennium rather more clear. Nothing is said here about his miraculous birth, the details of which are given in the seventh book of the Dînkard very much as they are found in the Persian Rivâyats. The Dînkard states that thirty years before the end of Zaratûst's millennium a young maiden bathing in certain water, and drinking it, becomes pregnant through the long-preserved seed of Zaratûst (see Bund. XXXII, 8, 9), and subsequently gives birth to Hûshêdar.]

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44. Regarding Hûshêdar it is declared that he will be born in 1600[1], and at thirty years of age he comes to a conference with me, Aûharmazd, and receives the religion. 45. When he comes away from the conference he cries to the sun with the swift horse[2], thus: "Stand still!"

46. 'The sun with the swift horse stands still ten

[1. There seems to be no other rational way of understanding this number than by supposing that it represents the date of Hûshêdar's birth, counting from the beginning of Zaratûst's millennium. According to this view Hûshêdar was to be born in the six hundredth year of his own millennium, and not at its beginning, as § 13 seems to imply, nor nearly thirty years earlier, as the Dînkard asserts. As the beginning of his millennium may be fixed about A. D. 593-635 (see note on § 11), the writer must have expected him to be born about A. D. 1193-1235; a time which was probably far in the future when he was writing. And as Vâhrâm the Vargâvand was to be born when Hûshêdar was thirty years of age (compare §§ 14) 44), and was to march into Iran at the age of thirty (§ 17), the great conflict of the nations (§§ 8, 19-22) was expected to begin about A.D. 1253-1295, and to continue till near the end of the millennium, about A.D. 1593-1635, when Pêshyôtanû was expected to appear (§ 51) and to restore the 'good' religion (§§ 26, 37, 42). An enthusiastic Parsi interpreter of prophecy might urge that though this period did not witness any revival of his religion, it did witness a restoration of the Persian empire under Shâh `Abbâs, and also the first beginning of British power in India, which has been so great a benefit to the scanty, remnant of his fellow-countrymen.

2. The usual epithet of the sun in the Avesta.]

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days and nights; and when this happens all the people of the world abide by the good religion of the Mazdayasnians. 47. Mitrô of the vast cattle-pastures cries to Hûshêdar, son of Zaratûst, thus: "O Hûshêdar, restorer of the true religion! cry to the sun with the swift horse thus: 'Move on!' for it is dark in the regions of Arzâh and Savâh, Fradadafsh and Vîdadafsh, Vôrûbarst and Vôrûgarst, and the illustrious Khvanîras[l]."

48. 'Hûshêdar son of Zaratûst cries, to the sun be cries, thus: "Move on!" 49. The sun with the swift horse moves on, and Vargâvand[2] and all mankind fully believe in the good religion of the Mazdayasnians.

50. Aûharmazd spoke thus: 'O Zaratûst the Spîtâmân! this is what I foretell, that this one brings the creatures back to their proper state. 51. When it is near the end of the millennium Pêshyôtanû[3] son of Vistâsp comes into notice, who is a Kayân that advances triumphantly; and those enemies who relied upon fiendishness, such as the Tûrk, Arab, and Rûman, and the vile ones who control[4] the Iranian sovereign with insolence and oppression and enmity to the sovereignty, destroy the fire and make the religion weak; and they convey their power and success to him and every one who accepts the law and religion willingly; if he

[1. The seven regions of the earth (see Bund. XI, 2, 3).

2. It is just possible to read, 'the sun with the swift horse, the splendid, moves on, and all mankind fully believe,' &c. But if the reading in the text be correct it effectually disposes of the idea of Vâhrâm being an incarnation of the angel, as an angel would require no miracle to make him believe in the religion.

3. See §§ 25-30.

4. This verb is doubtful, as most of the word is torn off in K20.]

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accept it unwillingly the law and religion ever destroy him[1] till it is the end of the whole millennium.

52. 'And, afterwards, when the millennium of Hûshêdar-mâh comes, through Hûshêdar-mâh[2] the creatures become more progressive, and he utterly destroys the fiend of serpent origin[3]; and Pêshyôtanû son of Vistâsp becomes, in like manner, high-priest and primate (rad) of the world[4]. 53. In that millennium of Hûshêdar-mâh mankind become so versed in medicine, and keep and bring physic and remedies so much in use, that when they are confessedly at the point of death they do not thereupon die, nor when they smite and slay them with the sword and knife[5].

54. 'Afterwards, one begs a gift of any description out of the allowance of heretics, and owing to depravity and heresy they do not give it. 55. And Aharman rises through that spite[6] on to the mountain

[1. This appears to be the meaning, but the latter part of the sentence is not very clear.

2. See Bund. XXXII, 8. The name is written Khûrshêd-mâh in K20. The Dînkard gives the same account of the miraculous birth of Hûshêdar-mâh as of the first Hûshêdar (see note on § 43); it also repeats the legend of the sun standing still, but for the longer period of twenty days; all which details are also found in the Persian Rivâyats.

3. Av. azikithra; such creatures are mentioned in Ardavahist Yt. 8, 10, 11, 15; but Az-i Dahâk, 'the destructive serpent,' is probably meant here (see §§ 56-61).

4. As in the previous millennium. According to the chronology deduced from s 44 the millennium of Hûshêdar-mâh, which corresponds to the twelfth and last millennium of Bund. XXXIV, is now near the middle of its third century.

5. The sentence is either defective or obscure, but this appears to be its meaning.

6. The evil spirit is encouraged by an act of religious toleration, apparently, to recommence his manœuvres for injuring mankind.]

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of Dimâvand[1], which is the direction of Bêvarâsp, and shouts thus: "Now it is nine thousand years, and Frêdûn is not living; why do you not rise up, although these thy fetters are not removed, when[2] this world is full of people, and they have brought them from the enclosure which Yim formed[3]?"

56. 'After that apostate shouts like this, and because of it, Az-i Dahâk[4] stands up before him, but, through fear of the likeness of Frêdûn in the body of Frêdûn, he does not first remove those fetters and stake from his trunk until Aharman removes them. 57. And the vigour of Az-i Dahâk increases, the fetters being removed from his trunk, and his impetuosity remains; he swallows down the apostate on the spot[5], and rushing into the world to perpetrate sin, he commits innumerable grievous sins; he swallows down one-third of mankind, cattle, sheep, and other creatures of Aûharmazd; he smites the water, fire, and vegetation, and commits grievous sin.

58. 'And, afterwards, the water, fire, and vegetation stand before Aûharmazd the lord in lamentation, and make this complaint: "Make Frêdûn alive again! so that he may destroy Az-i Dahâk; for if thou, O Aûharmazd! dost not do this, we cannot

[1. Here written Dimbhâvand (see Bund. XII, 31).

2. Reading amat, 'when,' instead of mûn, 'which' (see the note on Bund. I, 7).

3. The var-i Yim kard (see Bund. XXIX, 14). The men and creatures who are supposed to be preserved in this enclosure are expected to replenish the world whenever it has been desolated by wars and oppression.

4. Whose surname is Bêvarâsp (see Bund. XXIX, 9).

5. The Pâz. MSS. end here.]

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exist in the world; the fire says thus: I will not heat; and the water says thus: I will not flow."

59. 'And then I, Aûharmazd the creator, say to Srôsh and Nêryôsang the angel: "Shake the body of Keresâsp the Sâmân, till he rises up!"

60. 'Then Srôsh and Nêryôsang the angel go to Keresâsp[1]; three times they utter a cry, and the fourth time Sâm rises up with triumph, and goes to meet Az-i Dahâk. 61. And[2] Sâm does not listen to his words, and the triumphant club strikes him on the head, and smites and kills him; afterwards, desolation and adversity depart from this world, while I make a beginning of the millennium[3]. 62. Then Sôshyans[4] makes the creatures again pure, and the resurrection and future existence occur.'

63. May the end be in peace, pleasure, and joy, by the will of God (yazdânö)! so may it be! even more so may it be!

[1. Also called Sâm in this same section; he was lying in a trance in the plain of Pêsyânsaî (see Bund. XXIX, 7-9).

2. Reading afas instead of minas (see Chap. II, 4, note 2).

3. The thirteenth millennium, or first of the future existence, when Sôshyans appears. The Dînkard and the Persian Rivâyats recount the same legends regarding the miraculous birth of Sôshyans, and of the sun standing still (for thirty days), as they do with regard to Hûshêdar (see note on § 43).

4. See Bund. XXXII, 8.]

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