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Climbing Into The Champer and Straying of Sheeps Into The Farm
In the chapter of Al-Anbiyâ': And David and Solomon, when they gave judgment concerning the field, when people's sheep had strayed and browsed therein by night; and We were witnesses to their judgment. And We made Solomon to understand (the case); and unto each of them We gave judgment and knowledge(Al-Anbiyâ':78-79) and in the chapter of Sâd: And hath the story of the litigants come unto thee? How they climbed the wall into the royal chamber; How they burst in upon David, and he was afraid of them. They said: Be not afraid! (We are) two litigants, one of whom hath wronged the other, therefor judge aright between us; be not unjust; and show us the fair way. Lo! this my brother hath ninety and nine ewes while I had one ewe; and he said: Entrust it to me, and he conquered me in speech(Sâd:21-23).
Here we have to cases: the straying of the sheeps into the field and the climbing into the royal champer. The first is shared by David and his son Solomon (PUT) and the second is special for David, and about the case of the straying of sheeps it is as attributed to Al-Sâdiq (PUH) about this holy phrase is that the rules of prophets before David upto his time was that the sheeps and other domestic animals like camels and cows, if they grazed upon some plants then the owner of these plants or agriculture will be the owner of them and the straying is only done at night for the owner of the farm must guard his farm at daytime and the owner of the sheep must guard his sheeps at night time, so David judged with what the prophets had judged with before him, so then God inspired to Solomon and he was eleven years old at that time, as it was mentioned: any sheep that graze in other's farm, then the owner of the farm has only the right to get what is formed in their bodies, and this is how it went (for judges) after Solomon, so Solomon ordered to get the sheeps back for the owner of the farm and get benefit of their milk and their offsprings and their wools, and the farm shall be in the hands of the sheeps owners to fix it and get it back as it was before it was grazed upon, and then after that everything gets back to how it was and the sheeps get back to their owners and the farm to its owner and this is the judgement of Solomon that God made him understand, so everyone of them, David and Solomon, judged with the commands of God and they did not disobey the commandments of God, and it is by God's saying: and unto each of them We gave judgment and knowledge(Al-Anbiyâ':79).
In another narration it is mentioned that God inspired to David to make a successor for himself from his family because I knew in My ancient knowledge that I do not send a prophet except with a successor from his own family, and David had many children that time and the one that was assigned to be by God was Solomon, and then directly two men came to David to judge for their farm and sheeps and then God inspired to David to gather all his sons and whoever judges with a rightful judgement in this case then he is your successor, so then David gathered all his sons and when the two men told their stories Solomon said to the farmer: O farmer, when did this man's sheeps go into your farm? He answered: they went into it by night, then he said: I judge you O owner of the sheeps to give the offsprings of your sheeps and their milk and their wools for the owner of the farm in this year, and then David said to him: how come you did not judge with giving the sheeps and the scholars of the Israelites did assure that before and the price of the eaten plants is the price of the sheeps? Then said Solomon: the plants were not taken out from the roots but the sheeps did eat its top and this would return back in the future, and then God inspired to David that the judgement in this case is what Solomon did judge with. There are other narrations of the Household (PUT) with the same meaning and some of them include the addition of the two judgements together where the sheeps did eat the root and the branch then the farm owner would have the sheep, or otherwise it is as Solomon did judge with. Solomon also judged to keep the sheeps by their owners at night and to keep the farm by its owners at daytime, as it was mentioned before. Meditate!
As for the case of the climbing into the royal champer they said: David divided his time and made one day for worshipping and a day for advising and sermons and a day to judge for the people and a day for his ownself, and he put some guards on his door so that no one could go inside without his permission and no one would dare to go inside except by his agreement. In the day of his worshipping while he stayed away from the people and praying in his champer, then two men climbed the wall and got inside while he thought he is in safe from anyone that desires to go inside because there were guards, so they went down to him from the roof or the ceiling and he got afraid and they said to him then: do be afraid we are two men in fight that one had wronged the other so judge between us with just and do not wrong, meaning do not wrong us with your judgement, and guide is to the righteous path of just, this is my brother he has ninety nine ewes and I have only one ewe, and it is the female of the sheep, and he said to me: entrust it to me, meaning to be of my own, so that I would have a complete one hundred ewes, and he conquered me in the speech, so that he won against me and defeated me and I couldn't do anything, and then David said to the owner of one ewe: he wronged you by asking you for your only ewe, and David denied the greed of the owner of many ewes and he described him as a wrong-doer and made it as a great awful thing is to attack the owner of the one ewe and he said: many partners oppress one another, save such as believe and do good works, and they are few(Sâd:24), and then David looked back to the two of them and found them as angels and not human beings and that God sent them to him to warn him for something he had done.
God had tested him with their imaginary fight and in fact there were no fight and they had nothing but to warn him for what he had done: And David guessed that We had tried him(Sâd:24), meaning We tested him by that case and he was aware, and he sought forgiveness of his Lord, and he bowed himself and fell down prostrate and repented(Sâd:24), meaning he prostrated to his Lord with humiliation and he felt that he judged so fast for the owner of the one ewe and called the owner of many ewes as a wrong-doer and did not ask the man under the charge and did not ask for clues from the claiming man, and he felt that he did something wrong against the regulations and what the sacred law did regulate. For this he did prostrate with regret and humiliation for his Lord and asking for forigveness. This what happened with him and from him since the time of angels revelation while he was in his champer. They said about the reason for revealing these holy phrases is that David was inclined to marry a woman that her husband died and she completed her mourning period. The situation is that he is in no need to marry her because he already had many wives, and for the Israelites that was prohibited before the time of David but God made it legal for him. What happened with him is that he married the wife of Uriah after his death and after she completed the time of mourning , and Uriah was a faithful man and the neighbour of David and he was killed in the camp of David, so David married his wife after she had completed the time of her mourning but the Israelites denied doing this as we mentioned before.
It is mentioned by Al-Ridhâ (PUH) in a speech for him about the infallibility of prophets and he mentioned David and made him infallible and away from any wrong doing and mentioned him with great deeds and then the Imâm (PUH) asked someone that was attending and he (PUH) knows better what he is asking about but that was only to make a way for the speech to come and to obtain the things. So he (PUH) said: what do people say about the case of David and his mistake? They said: they say that David was praying in his champer when Iblis (Satan) had the shape of a bird that no other bird had its beauty, so David then cut off praying and went to the bird trying to catch him, but the bird went out into the house and he kept on behind it, but the bird flew to the roof and he went up there trying to catch him and the bird down to the house of Uriah (ben Hayyân) and David looked at him there and he found the wife of Uriah washing herself and she was naked and when he looked at her he loved her and desired her, and at the time he (David) sent Uriah for some invasions, so he sent to his friend and the high commander of the army to make Uriah at the front of the ark, and so he did and he defeated the enemies and that was hard for David, so he sent again and commanded to make Uriah at the front again, and so he did and he was killed then and David married his wife. The narrator then said: then the Imâm struck his holy forehead with his hand and said: Innâ Lillâh Wa'Innâ Ilayhi Raji`un (we are for God and to God we will return) [a phrase said when something horrible happens] you claimed that a prophet of God took his praying with easiness for a bird and then he commited adultery and then killed someone. Then they said: O son of the prophet what was his mistake then? Then he (PUH) said: woe to you! David only thought that God did not create someone wiser than him so God sent down for him the two angels and they climbed the wall of the champer and said to him: two men fought against each other...etc, and David then made a fast decision against the charged man and said to him (the man claiming): he had wronged you for asking you for your only ewe, and he did not ask the claiming man for clues and did not ask the charged man for explanations, and that was the mistake of David and not what others do say, didn't you hear God's saying: O David! Lo! We have set thee as a viceroy in the earth; therefor judge aright between mankind..etc(Sâd:26). Then they asked the Imâm (PUH): O son of prophet of God then what is the story of David with Uriah, so Al-Ridhâ (PUH) then said: the woman at the time of David was never to be married after the death of her husband, and the first man that God allowed him to marry a woman that her husband was killed was David, so he married the wife of Uriah when he was killed and her mourning was over, and for this was hard for the people. For this it is mentioned by Al-Sâdiq (PUH): the satisfaction of people is not to be owned and their tongues are not to be fixed, did not they claim that David followed the bird until he looked at the wife of Uriah and loved her and he made her husband at the front of the ark until her husband got killed and he married her then after? They mentioned that the prince of believers (PUH) said: who talked about the narration of David as the narrators say it shall be whipped one hundred and sixty times for claiming killing with attacking the high place of prophecy. It was one punishment with emphasis on attacking the prophet's name with lies.
It is narrated that David (PUH) climbed up a mountain and there was a prophet called Ezekiel on it and he used to worship God there, so David took a permission from Ezekiel and God inspired him (Ezekiel) to go and meet him so he went down to him and took him from his hand and climbed with him up, and then David said: O Ezekiel, ever thought of doing a sin? He answered: no, then he (David) said: are you wondering about your own worshipping for God? He answered: no, then he (David) said: ever thought of life and desired some of its ornaments? He answered: yes, maybe that was in my heart, then said he (David): and what do you do then? He answered: I go into that room and think about what is inside, so then David went into the room and found a bed made of iron with an old skull on it and old bones and there were a plate of iron with a scripture: I am Uri ben Sâlim, ruled for one thousand years and built one thousand cities and deflowered one thousand maidens, and my end was that my bed was to the dust and the stones were my pillow and snakes with worms were my neighbours, and whoever sees me let him never be tricked by this life.
It is mentioned before that David married the woman of Uriah after her husband's death and ending her mourning, and she gave birth to Solomon for him, and that was mentioned for sure. In God's speech: So We forgave him that; and lo! he had access to Our presence and a happy journey's end(Sâd:25), as it is mentioned by Al-Tabarsi: they differed in what was the purpose of this forigveness, and for why David did ask for forgiveness, so it was said that he got that by isolation to God and humiliation to Him by worshipping as it did happen with Abraham as God did tell it: And Who, I ardently hope, will forgive me my sin on the Day of Judgment(Al-Shu`arâ':82), and this is the most probable for the high level of infalliblity of prophet in all conditions and against all sins as it was proved before, while some said: it is allowed to say that they (prophets) do the little sins as it is apparent from God's saying: and he sought forgiveness of his Lord, and he bowed himself and fell down prostrate and repented(Sâd:24), and then from God's acceptance for his forgiveness' seeking: So We forgave him that(Sâd:25), and according to this they differed also in the case of David, some said: it is that Uriah asked for proposal to a woman and her family accepted that marriage but David then went and ased for proposal to her after him (Uriah) and because of his holiness they made him marry the woman instead of Uriah, and that was a sin and he was blamed for it, another saying is that David sent Uriah to some place and he was killed but he didn't turn sad for him because he was inclined to marry his wife, and that was a sin so he was blamed by sending down on him the two angels. A third saying is that when a man was to be dead and leave a woman then his masters are the ones to take care of her, and thus when Uriah died, David married his wife and her family did not forbid him from doing so because of his high place, and that was a sin and so he was to be blamed, and a fourth saying is that he was blamed for his fast decisions in judging people when the two men came to him and this is what was explained afore, and there are other sayings that are needless to say and what we had mentioned has enough for you, and God is the Bringer of sucesss.

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